Sweat contains DCD, a peptide containing amino acids, which possesses antimicrobial activity against different pathogens in high salt concentrations and over an extensive pH range resembling to the human sweat. For this reason, sweat is considered to be crucial for human skin microflora [ 58 ]. Moreover, DCD and the receptors for DCD are present and overexpressed on the cell surface of invasive breast carcinomas and their lymph node metastases and neurons of the brain.
These findings reveal that DCD is involved in tumorigenesis by promoting cell growth and survival in breast carcinomas [ 59 ]. Another prognostic biomarker is prolactin inducible protein PIP which is expressed in many exocrine tissues including sweat glands and is overexpressed in metastatic breast and prostate cancer [ 60 ].
In addition, prognostic biomarkers have also been investigated in a study performed on eccrine sweat in healthy and schizophrenic patients. The eccrine sweat contains plenty of various proteins and peptides unlikely to that of serum showing that eccrine sweat may produce distinctive disease-linked biomolecules [ 6 ]. Currently, sweat analysis for drug contents is accomplished through two approaches, that is, early and late testing.
Together with urine, sweat is an ideal sample for doping control. This biofluid contains a small but quantifiable percent of a drug [ 63 ] excreted through transcellular and paracellular pathways in skin [ 1164 ].
The reported drugs excreted through sweat in a quantifiable fraction are the opiates, buprenorphine, amphetamines, gamma hydroxybutyrates, cocaine, and cannabinoids [ 965 ]. In addition, ethanol contents in sweat as a function of time have also been successfully analyzed after ingesting ethanol [ 51 ]. Xenometabolomics is a branch of science that deals with the study of essential metals and xenometals in the organism contaminated through either ingestion of food or absorption through skin by occupational exposures [ 66 ].
After getting into body, some metals are converted to their xenometabolites cations or salts followed by their solubilization in sweat.
In addition to excretion of metals as their free metals, ions, or simple salts, excretion of some metals occurs in the form of their complexes. For example, lead complexed with high molecular weight compounds excretes through sweat [ 25 ]. The excreted sweat concentrations of some metals e. Table 2 elaborates the studies of metal excretion in sweat conducted in different countries.
It can therefore be stated that perspiration is a potential route for the excretion of toxic metals from the body. Because of heterogeneous distribution of various sweat glands in skin, the profiles of volatile Sweat (High Density Mix) - U.S.U.R.A. - Sweat (Cassette) compounds VOC are different in different body regions, which also affect the odor of an individual [ 6869 ].
Moreover, VOC from personal care products and sweat may also interfere with each other during sweat analysis [ 7071 ]. In addition, compounds which are volatile at body temperature are directly collected, while the other substances are obtained through volatilization of collected sweat.
Based on sweat analysis, advancements in the genomics and proteomics have enormously contributed to the field of metabolomics and the systems biology. The metabolisms of the macromolecules in sweat glands produce lower molecular weight metabolites, such as the conversion of proteins to peptides or amino acids. Since, metabolomics deals with measurements of both precursor and metabolites, sweat can be used as a biofluid, in addition to blood and urine, to explore biomarkers for various diseases.
Subsequently, Sweat (High Density Mix) - U.S.U.R.A. - Sweat (Cassette), these discoveries help in exploring effective therapeutic moieties. Since sweat consists of various biomarkers, these biomarkers have played an excellent role in diagnosis of cancer, diabetes, schizophrenia, and cystic fibrosis. Conclusively, sweat can be used as a promising biofluid for disease diagnosis and drug analysis.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Int J Anal Chem. Published online Mar 9. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Currently, the clinical use of sweat as biofluid is limited. Introduction Similar to the sebaceous glands or hair follicles, sweat glands are epidermal appendages that are normally distributed over the whole body, excluding the nipples, lips, and external genital organs.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Routes of excretion of various products after liver metabolism. Sweat as Biofluid 2. Induction of Perspiration Apart from sampling and analysis, the induction of perspiration is a distinct phenomenon unlike other biofluids, which are rather directly collected. Sampling of Sweat An ideal sampler is the one that is user-friendly and harmless to skin and quickly collects the sweat in sufficient volumes.
Sample Preparation for Analysis Generally, sweat is directly analyzed; however, sweat samples can further be processed if lipid or protein moieties are detected in sweat. Analysis of Sweat The quality of sweat analysis depends on the efficiency of sample collection and the accuracy and sensitivity of analytical methods [ 2 — 5942 ]. Table 1 Some approaches for separation and detection-determination of drugs of abuse in sweat.
Number Analytical approach Examples of some analyzed drugs Limit of quantification ng per patch References 1 GC-MS electron ionization Cocaine, codeine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, and heroin 5—10 [ 8 ] 2 GC-MS electron ionization Cocaine, codeine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, and heroin 5 [ 13 ] GC-MS electron ionization Methadone 50 [ 14 ] 3 GC-MS electron ionization Cocaine, codeine, 6-acetylcodeine, morphine, and heroin 50 [ 15 ] 4 GC-MS electron ionization Codeine, morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine 2.
Applications of Sweat Analysis 3. Diagnosis of Diseases Since last three decades, much attention has been paid towards application of sweat in disease diagnosis. Assessment of Drugs and Ethanol in Sweat Currently, sweat analysis for drug contents is accomplished through two approaches, that is, early and late testing. Assessment of Metals, Ions, and Salts in Sweat Xenometabolomics is a branch of science that deals with the study of essential metals and xenometals in the organism contaminated through either ingestion of food or absorption through skin by occupational exposures [ 66 ].
Table 2 Studies of metal excretion in sweat. Conclusion Based on sweat analysis, advancements in the genomics and proteomics have enormously contributed Sweat (High Density Mix) - U.S.U.R.A. - Sweat (Cassette) the field Sweat (High Density Mix) - U.S.U.R.A. - Sweat (Cassette) metabolomics and the systems biology. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. References 1. Wilke K. A short history of sweat gland biology.
International Journal of Cosmetic Science. Sato K. Biology of sweat glands and their disorders. Normal sweat gland function. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Caplan Y. Alternative specimens for workplace drug testing. Journal of Analytical Toxicology. Clinical pharmacokinetics of amfetamine and related substances: monitoring in conventional and non-conventional matrices. Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Pichini S. Drug monitoring in non-conventional biologic fluids and matrices.
Raiszadeh M. Proteomic analysis of eccrine sweat: implications for the discovery of schizophrenia biomarker proteins. Journal of Proteome Research. Kintz P. Sweat testing in opioid users with a sweat patch. Brunet B. Development and validation of a solid-phase extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of methadone, heroin, cocaine and metabolites in sweat.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Gallardo E. The role of alternative specimens in toxicological analysis. Biomedical Chromatography. Huestis M. Monitoring opiate use in substance abuse treatment patients with sweat and urine drug testing. Mena-Bravo A. Sweat: a sample with limited present applications and promising future in metabolomics.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Forensic Science International. Monitoring pregnant women's illicit opiate and cocaine use with sweat testing. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Fucci N. Methadone in hair and sweat from patients in long-term maintenance therapy. Sweat testing in addicts under methadone treatment: an Italian experience. Schwilke E. Opioid disposition in human sweat after controlled oral codeine administration.
Clinical Chemistry. Kidwell D. Susceptibility of PharmChek drugs of abuse patch to environmental contamination. Sweat testing for cocaine, codeine and metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Schneider S. Determination of fentanyl in sweat and hair of a patient using transdermal patches.
Genuis S. Blood, urine, and sweat BUS study: monitoring and elimination of bioaccumulated toxic elements. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Robinson J. The direct determination of mercury in sweat. Spectroscopy Letters. Sunderman F. The Spaceman Original Mix. Show More Show Less. Thinkin' About You. Dirty Mind. The 7th Hallucination The 7th Main.
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