Many of Allenby's soldiers were deeply conscious that they were fighting on sacred soil, and some viewed themselves as modern-day crusaders, but their leader was acutely aware that many of his soldiers and workers were Islamic, and he vigorously played down any notion of a crusade. Convinced that neither side had the means to achieve victory in France inPrime Minister David Lloyd George sought to make Allenby's theatre the focus of his country's military effort.
Germany's massive offensives closer to home during the first half ofhowever, forced the government to recall most of Allenby's British soldiers to France.
Allenby, who retained his cavalry, received replacements for his infantry in Egypt from many sources, predominately from India but also from many other diverse nations ranging from Burma to the West Indies. Since 19 September Allenby's forces had advanced hundreds of miles and netted over 75, prisoners. Allenby returned to the offensive at the Battle of Megiddo, on 19 September Once the enemy front was broken, the EEF's cavalry dominated the campaign.
Damascus fell on 1 October, Aleppo, the last city to fall in the campaign, on 26 October. Five days later an armistice with the Ottoman Empire came into effect.
With the Ottoman Empire destroyed, Russia paralysed by foreign intervention and civil war, and French influence limited somewhat by their minor military role in the Middle East, Britain's military success made her the dominant power in the region. The resulting settlement, which fostered an instability that continues to be a source of conflict today, generated much controversy at the time and has continued to do so ever since.
Employing bags of gold, the diplomacy of Lawrence of Arabia, and promises of Arab independence, the British had encouraged an Arab uprising in against the Turks. Although the Hashemite Arabs were rewarded with considerable territory, they and other Arab nationalists believed that they had been 'robbed' when the British did not fully deliver on their pledges of independence.
They believed that the western powers, especially the British, had acted with arrogance, drawing borders and creating nations with little or no regard for the wishes of the local inhabitants. The fate of Palestine, occupied by the British, especially provoked Arab frustration and anger. But in important respects the Arab view of the peace settlement which is supported by many western historians is a caricature of what actually happened. In a revisionist work, Efraim Karsh and Inari Karsh have made a convincing argument that many forces, both local and foreign, were at work at the time the settlement was agreed.
In their words, 'even at the weakest point in their modern history, during the First World War and its immediate wake, Middle Eastern actors were not hapless victims of predatory imperial powers, but active participants in the restructuring of their region. And if the French and British had granted 'self-determination' They argue, for example, that Iraq and Trans-Jordan were not simply British inventions, but owed their existence to a compromise between Hashemite imperial greed and well-intended British efforts to meet local needs and allay the fears and suspicions of their allies.
It is perhaps only proper to note that if Germany had won the war, the Ottoman Empire would have been expanded, subjecting many Arabs and other nationalities to its rule. And if the French and British had granted 'self-determination' to the inhabitants of this region it is possible that the result would have been the balkanisation of the area, with fragile and often antagonistic fiefdoms and kingdoms prevailing.
It seems likely that, no matter how this war in the Middle East had been resolved, the region was destined to suffer instability and conflict in the years ahead. Search term:. Read more. Following up this success, Jebel Madani, a hill north of the town, was taken on June 16, again by a quick night assault. Damascus was a bare 10 miles away. The first task was to take Mezze, a small village dominating the main road north to Damascus.
Like other Vichy positions, it was heavily defended. Again, Lloyd unleashed a night attack. The plan was for two Indian battalions to advance on the village and cut the Vichy communications with the coast. At the same time, a Free French brigade would move on the city Monster Ball - DJ Outlaw (2) - The Middle Easts Invasion (When Arabs Unite) (CDr). The attack got under way in the early-morning hours of June This time, however, Vichy troops were waiting for such a move.
When the two Indian battalions advanced, they were met by a torrent of machine-gun fire, both from positions in front of Mezze and from the woods to the left of the village. The Indians pushed on, though, and fought their way into the town. The inevitable Vichy counterattack began at 9 am. A battalion of infantry supported by tanks advanced down the road from Damascus and quickly forced an Indian infantry company, which had dug in just up the road, back into Mezze.
From there, the Vichy tanks blasted their way into the town and reduced Indian positions there one by one. The fighting raged throughout the day, with the Indians being squeezed into a small pocket—a walled garden—within the village. From here, they lashed out at the Vichy tanks and managed to hold on through the rest of the day and into the night, when they were finally forced to surrender for lack of ammunition.
An Australian infantry battalion had just arrived from Palestine; Lloyd sent them up the road to Mezze. The Aussies cleared Vichy defenses just south of the village and fought their way inside, securing it once again by sundown on the 20th. That night, the Australians moved north and cut the road to Beirut and also took a pair of Vichy positions in the hills west of Damascus, though one had to be abandoned when Vichy forces counterattacked.
There were heavy Vichy counterattacks the next day as well against the Australians in Mezze and on the Beirut road, though they were stopped.
Knowing that Damascus could not be rescued, and hearing Allied appeals for withdrawal broadcast on the open radio, General Dentz decided to abandon the capital. Vichy forces there withdrew to the northwest without incident. A Free French brigade entered the city on June From there, the Free French drove north in pursuit of Vichy forces while the Australians, in conjunction with the British 16th Brigade, pushed west along the road to Beirut and encountered stiff Vichy resistance atop Jebel Mazar.
Dug into the slopes of the hill and supported by tanks, Vichy forces stopped the Allied advance in its tracks. On June 26, a combined attack by one Australian company and two British clawed its way up the slope under grueling artillery fire and drove the enemy from the hill. The Australians clung to their positions through several Vichy counterattacks throughout June 27 before reluctantly withdrawing that night. Just after midnight on the morning of June 8, the Australian 21st Brigade crossed the border and drove north along the coast road toward Tyre against light resistance.
The brigade pushed onto the banks of the Litani against light resistance. On the right, the 25th Brigade advanced for the town of Marjayoun, where they were halted by unusually stiff Vichy resistance. Over the next week, the Australian 21st Brigade saw heavy fighting as it advanced up the coast road.
After crossing the Litani, the Aussies fought their way past several Vichy roadblocks, often featuring troops dug into caves Monster Ball - DJ Outlaw (2) - The Middle Easts Invasion (When Arabs Unite) (CDr) the side of the road. Once past a block, the Australian advance would be further slowed by a quick Vichy counterattack usually comprising several light tanks or armored cars. On June 13 there was again heavy fighting just south of Sidon, where a battalion-level attack was stopped by Vichy defenders.
Not until more artillery was brought up in conjunction with supporting naval gunfire were the Australians able to work around the flank and get onto the heights above Sidon, compelling Vichy troops to pull out. Farther inland, on the morning of June 10, the Australian 25th Brigade opened its assault on Marjayoun and, with heavy artillery support, pushed its way into the town and accepted the surrender of Vichy forces there later that day.
From Marjayoun, they advanced farther north for Jezzine. On June 14, the brigade ran into more Vichy resistance on a hill south of Jezzine, which the Australians had to take at bayonet point. At this point, General de Virdhilhac mounted a counterattack.
The first blow fell on Australian forces at Marjayoun. As several companies were clearing the hills above town, the garrison remaining a reinforced infantry company was not strong enough to hold on and had to withdraw. A second effort on the 19th fought through Monster Ball - DJ Outlaw (2) - The Middle Easts Invasion (When Arabs Unite) (CDr) defenses and into town but was pushed out again by a Vichy armored counterattack, though the Aussies did destroy several tanks.
The effort against Marjayoun was not renewed until June 23, when elements of the recently arrived British 16th Brigade attacked Vichy positions east of the town. After these fell, Monster Ball - DJ Outlaw (2) - The Middle Easts Invasion (When Arabs Unite) (CDr), Vichy forces evacuated Marjayoun, this time for good. In conjunction with the assault on Marjayoun, a Vichy battalion attacked Australian troops at Jezzine.
A Vichy attack, led by several tanks and armored cars, also fell on the Fusiliers Battalion garrisoning Kuneitra, which, lacking anti-guns, had to surrender the town. Reinforcements arrived in the form of the British 6th Division. In conjunction with the Australian 25th Brigade, they reduced Jezzine, with one brigade advancing north, completing the envelopment of the town. On the morning of June 28, an Australian patrol entered Jezzine without a fight.
Vichy troops had vanished during the night. The final obstacle to Beirut was the line of Vichy defenses along the Damour River about 10 miles south of Beirut. Vichy forces, amounting to four battalions, occupied a strong position atop a ridge on the north bank. Even so, these were not enough to hold the entire area, and their left flank was wide open. On the night of July 5, one battalion of the 17th Brigade launched a holding attack on the ridge while another crossed the river under cover of a heavy artillery barrage and pushed north past the ridge.
By the 7th, the battalion had taken up positions directly east of Damour. At this point they were subjected to a Vichy counterattack, which spoiled their continued advance. Reinforcements in the form of another battalion arrived, which helped renew the drive for Damour, the outskirts of which they entered. Other elements continued north in an effort to cut the town off from Beirut. Fighting in Damour proper continued throughout the 7th and into the 8th before the Australians, with one battalion advancing from the east and another from the north, were able to push Vichy troops out of the town.
Meanwhile, engineers, under heavy fire from the ridge, managed to throw a bridge across the river, allowing tanks and infantry to push across. However, they were unable to advance much past the riverbank because of heavy fire from the ridge.
The Australians were unable to advance until the 9th, when a heavy naval bombardment finally cleared a path for them.
The road to Beirut was now open, Monster Ball - DJ Outlaw (2) - The Middle Easts Invasion (When Arabs Unite) (CDr). With Palmyra and Damascus in enemy hands and the Australians slowly but steadily grinding their way toward Beirut, on the 10th General Dentz began a parlay.
After day-long, face-to-face negotiations between Dentz and General Wilson, and with the American consul-general in Beirut helping to mediate, an agreement was reached. Vichy troops would surrender with full honors of war and be given the opportunity to join the Free French. Disappointingly, less than half, about 6, did so; the rest returned to France. Syria would be occupied by British and Commonwealth forces.
The Vichy administration would be replaced with a Free French government. The conniving Dentz flew dozens of captured British, Australian, and Indian officers to German-occupied Greece before flying to France, where he remained for the rest of the war. Inhe was convicted of treason and sentenced to death. The sentence was commuted to life imprisonment but he died in prison in December There was one act left in the Middle East drama, this time in Persia. By the summer ofGerman forces had pushed the Soviets across European Russia, threatening Moscow and the Caucasus, and by extension, Persia.
Both the British and the Soviets were worried about Persia for two reasons. First, hundreds of Axis agents were known to reside in the kingdom. Second, the Allies hoped to open a second supply route through Persia as an alternative to the dangerous Arctic run.
Monster Ball - DJ Outlaw (2) - The Middle Easts Invasion (When Arabs Unite) (CDr) the shah refused their demand, British and Soviet commanders readied to invade.
The British plan called for a two-pronged thrust. The southern prong, led by the 8th Indian Infantry Division, was to cross the Shat al-Arab in two places and take Abadan and Ahwaz while one company was airlifted to the Haft Kel oilfield to the east. Two other companies would land at the port of Bandar Shapur. The British effort would be made in conjunction with a Russian thrust down from the Caucasus. Upon seeing a British mechanized column advancing toward them, the defenders of Qasir-i-Shirin fled.
By the end of the first day, the city was in British hands and the road to Pai Tak Pass was now open. The next day there was a short battle for the village of Gilan. After halting the British advance, Persian troops there withdrew east.
On August 26, Slim deployed his 21st Indian Infantry Brigade before the pass, which scouts indicated was well defended. However, after a flight of Blenheims struck the pass, the Persians there fled as well. In love again - massari 6. Kl to beirut - dj fuzz, dj lethal skillz and mc moe 7. Cellular - vico prod by dj outlaw 8. Fakkir - desert heat 9. Shout out - papoose Im an outlaw - dj outlaw feat b. Monster ball - kaz money Smokin - ghost feat dj thug Talk to me - army of one qb, daffy, arabface Take my hand - may feat arabface Dont let go - young g Listen to my story - palestine Shout out - The outlawz
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