Some Christians believe that the souls and bodies of the unrighteous will be destroyed in hell rather than suffering eternally annihilationism. Believers will inherit eternal The Soul Redrive either in Heavenor in a Kingdom of God on earth, and enjoy eternal fellowship with God.
Although all major branches of Christianity — Catholics, Eastern OrthodoxOriental OrthodoxChurch of the EastEvangelicaland mainline Protestants — teach that Jesus Christ plays a decisive role in the Christian salvation process, the specifics of that role and the part played by individual persons or by ecclesiastical rituals and relationships, is a matter of wide diversity in official church teaching, theological speculation and popular practice.
Some [ which? Some [ who? There are also beliefs in universal salvation. The "origin of the soul" has provided a vexing question in Christianity. The major theories put forward include soul creationismtraducianismand pre-existence. According to soul creationism, God creates each individual soul directly, either at the moment of conception or some later time.
According to traducianism, the soul comes from the parents by natural generation. According to the preexistence theory, the soul exists before the moment of conception.
Stances in this question might play a role in judgements on the morality of abortion. Augustineone of western Christianity's most influential early Christian thinkers, described the soul as "a special substance, endowed with reason, adapted to rule the body". Some Christians espouse a trichotomic view of humans, which characterizes humans as consisting of a body somasoul psycheand spirit pneuma. Paul said that the "body wars against" the soul, "For the word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit" Heb NASBand that "I buffet my body", to keep it under control.
The present Catechism of The Soul Redrive Catholic Church defines the soul as "the innermost aspect of humans, that which is of greatest value in them, that by which they are in God's image described as 'soul' signifies the spiritual principle in man". The Catholic Church teaches that the existence of each individual soul is dependent wholly upon God: "The doctrine of the faith affirms that the spiritual and immortal soul is created immediately by God.
Protestants generally believe in the soul's existence, but fall into two major camps about what this means in terms of an afterlife. Some, following Calvin believe in the immortality of the soul and conscious existence after death, while others, following Luther believe in the mortality of the soul and unconscious "sleep" until the resurrection of the dead.
After death, the spirit continues to live and progress in the Spirit world until the resurrectionwhen it is reunited with the body that once housed it. This reuniting of body and spirit results in a perfect soul that is immortal and eternal and capable of receiving a fulness of joy. These are co-eternal with God, and animate the spirits. Some Confucian traditions contrast a spiritual soul with a corporeal soul. In Jainism, jiva is the immortal essence or soul of a living organism human, animal, fish or plant etc.
The concept of jiva in Jainism is similar to atman in Hinduism. However, some Hindu traditions differentiate between the two concepts, with jiva considered as individual self, while atman as that which is universal unchanging self that is present in all living beings and everything else as the metaphysical Brahman.
And mankind has not been given of knowledge except a little. Allah takes the souls at the time of their death, and those that do not die [He takes] during their sleep. Then He keeps those for which He has decreed death and releases the others for a specified term. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought. In Jainism, every living being, from plant or bacterium to human, has a soul and the concept forms the very basis of Jainism.
According to Jainism, there is no beginning or end to the existence of soul. It is eternal in nature and changes its form until it attains liberation. Irrespective of which state the soul is in, it has got the same attributes and qualities. The difference between the liberated and non-liberated souls is that the qualities and attributes are manifested completely in case of siddha liberated soul as they have overcome all the karmic bondages whereas in case of non-liberated souls they are partially exhibited.
Souls who rise victorious over wicked emotions while still remaining within physical bodies are referred to as arihants. Concerning the Jain view of the soul, Virchand Gandhi said.
If we believe that the soul is to be controlled by the body then soul misses its power. In Judaism the soul was believed to be given by God to Adam as mentioned in Genesis. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. Judaism relates the quality of one's soul to one's performance of the commandments mitzvot and reaching higher levels of understanding, and thus closeness to God. A person with such closeness is called a tzadik.
Kabbalah and other mystic traditions go into greater detail into the nature of the soul. Kabbalah separates the soul into five elements, corresponding to the five worlds :. Kabbalah also proposed a concept of reincarnation, the gilgul. See also nefesh habehamit the "animal soul". The Scientology view is that a person does not have a soul, it is a soul.
A person is immortal, and may be reincarnated if they wish. The Scientology term for the soul is " thetan ", derived from the Greek word "theta", symbolizing thought. Scientology counselling called auditing addresses the soul to improve abilities, both worldly and spiritual. The belief in soul dualism is found throughout most Austronesian shamanistic traditions.
The "free soul" is said to leave the body and journey to the spirit world during sleep, trance-like statesdeliriuminsanityand death.
The duality is also seen in the healing traditions of Austronesian shamans, where illnesses are regarded as a "soul loss" and thus to heal the sick, one must "return" the "free soul" which may have been stolen by an evil spirit or got lost in the spirit world into the body. If the "free soul" can not be returned, the afflicted person dies or goes permanently insane. In some ethnic groups, there can also be more than two souls.
Like among the Tagbanwa peoplewhere a person is said to have six souls - the "free soul" which is regarded as the "true" soul and five secondary souls with various functions. Kalbo Inuit groups believe that a person has more than one type of soul. One is associated with respiration, the other can accompany the body as a shadow.
The shaman heals within the spiritual dimension by returning 'lost' parts of the human soul from wherever they have gone. The shaman also cleanses excess negative energies, which confuse or pollute the soul. Sikhism considers soul atma to be part of God Waheguru. For example: "The soul is divine; divine is the soul. Worship Him with love. The atma or soul according to Sikhism is an entity or "spiritual spark" or "light" in our body because of which the body can sustain life.
On the departure of this entity from the body, the body becomes lifeless — No amount of manipulations to the body can make the person make any physical actions. The soul is the 'driver' in the body. It is the roohu or spirit or atmathe presence of which makes the physical body alive. Many religious and philosophical traditions support the view that the soul is the ethereal substance — a spirit; a non-material spark — particular to a unique living being.
Such traditions often consider the soul both immortal and innately aware of its immortal nature, as well as the true basis for sentience in each living being. The concept of the soul has strong links with notions of an afterlife, but opinions may vary wildly even within a given religion as to what happens to the soul after death.
Many within these religions and philosophies see the soul as immaterial, while others consider it possibly material.
In theological reference to the soul, the terms "life" and "death" are viewed as emphatically more definitive than the common concepts of " biological life " and "biological death".
Because the soul is said to be transcendent of the material existence, and is said to have potentially eternal lifethe death of the soul is likewise said to be an eternal death. Thus, in the concept of divine judgmentGod is commonly said to have options with regard to the dispensation of souls, ranging from Heaven i. Typically both Heaven and hell are said to be eternal, or at least far beyond a typical human concept of lifespan and time.
According to Louis Ginzbergthe soul of Adam is the image of God. In Dada BhagwanThe Soul is an independent eternal element. The Soul is permanent. In order to experience the Soul you need to attain Self-Realization. In Brahma Kumarishuman souls are believed to be incorporeal and eternal. God is considered to be the Supreme Soul, with maximum degrees of spiritual qualities, such as peace, love and purity.
In Helena Blavatsky 's Theosophythe soul is the field of our psychological activity thinking, emotions, memory, desires, will, and so on as well as of the so-called paranormal or psychic phenomena extrasensory perception, out-of-body experiences, etc. However, the soul is not the highest, but a middle dimension of human beings. Higher than the soul is the spirit, which is considered to be the real self; the source of everything we call "good"—happiness, wisdom, love, compassion, harmony, peace, etc.
While the spirit is eternal and incorruptible, the soul is not. The soul acts as a link between the material body and the spiritual self, and therefore shares some characteristics of both. The soul can be attracted either towards the spiritual or towards the material realm, being thus the "battlefield" of good and evil. It is only when the soul is attracted towards the spiritual and merges with the Self that it becomes eternal and divine. Rudolf Steiner claimed classical trichotomic stages of soul development, which interpenetrated one another in consciousness: .
In Surat Shabda Yogathe soul is considered to be an exact replica and spark of the Divine. Similarly, the spiritual teacher Meher Baba held that "Atma, or the soul, is in reality identical with Paramatma the Oversoul — which is one, infinite, and eternal Eckankarfounded by Paul Twitchell indefines Soul as the true self; the inner, most sacred part of each person.
Gurdjieff taught that humans are not born with immortal souls but could develop them through certain efforts.
The ancient Greeks used the word " ensouled " to represent the concept of being "alive", indicating that the earliest surviving western philosophical view believed that the soul was that which gave the body life.
Francis M. Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but when one is sleeping, the soul is active and reveals "an award of joy or sorrow drawing near" in dreams.
Erwin Rohde writes that an early pre- Pythagorean belief presented the soul as lifeless when it departed the body, and that it retired into Hades with no hope of returning to a body. Drawing on the words of his teacher Socrates, Plato considered the psyche to be the essence of a person, being that which decides how we behave. He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being.
Plato said that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think. He believed that as bodies die, the soul is continually reborn metempsychosis in subsequent bodies. However, Aristotle believed that only one part of the soul was immortal, namely the intellect logos.
The Platonic soul consists of three parts: . Plato also compares the three parts of the soul or psyche to a societal caste system. According to Plato's theory, the three-part soul is essentially the same thing as a state's class system because, to function well, each part must contribute so that the whole functions well. Logos keeps the other functions of the soul regulated. In Aristotle's view, the primary activity, or full actualization, of a living thing constitutes its soul.
For example, the full actualization of an eye, as an independent organism, is to see its purpose or final cause. This organization between form and matter is necessary for any activity, or functionality, to be possible in a natural being.
Using an artifact non-natural being as an example, a house is a building for human habituation, but for a house to be actualized requires the material wood, nails, bricks, etc. However, this does not imply that a house has a soul. In regards to artifacts, the source of motion that is required for their full actualization is outside of themselves for example, a builder builds a house.
In natural beings, this source of motion is contained within the being itself. The various faculties of the soulsuch as nutrition, movement peculiar to animalsreason peculiar to humanssensation special, common, and incidental and so forth, when exercised, constitute the "second" actuality, or fulfillment, of the capacity to be alive.
For example, someone who falls asleep, as opposed to someone who falls dead, can wake up and live their life, while the latter can no longer do so.
Aristotle's discussion of the soul is in his work, De Anima On the Soul. Although mostly seen as opposing Plato in regard to the immortality of the soul, a controversy can be found in relation to the fifth chapter of the third book: in this text both interpretations can be argued for, soul as a whole can be deemed mortal, and a part called "active intellect" or "active mind" is immortal and eternal.
Following Aristotle, Avicenna Ibn Sina and Ibn al-Nafisan Arab physician, further elaborated upon the Aristotelian understanding of the soul and developed their own theories on the soul. They both made a distinction between the soul and the spirit, and the Avicennian doctrine on the nature of the soul was influential among the Scholastics. Some of Avicenna's views on the soul include the idea that the immortality of the soul is a consequence of its nature, and not a purpose for it to fulfill.
In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect. While he was imprisoned, Avicenna wrote his famous " Floating man " thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantial nature of the soul. He argues that in this scenario one would still have self-consciousness. He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thingand that the soul should not be seen in relative termsbut as a primary given, a substance.
Avicenna generally supported Aristotle's idea of the soul originating from the heartwhereas Ibn al-Nafis rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul "is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organs ". He further criticized Aristotle's idea whereby every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart.
Al-Nafis concluded that "the soul is related primarily neither to the spirit nor to any organ, but rather to the entire matter whose temperament is prepared to receive that soul," and he defined the soul as nothing other than "what a human indicates by saying " I ". Following Aristotle whom he referred to as "the Philosopher" and Avicenna, Thomas Aquinas —74 understood the soul to be the first actuality of the living body.
Consequent to this, he distinguished three orders of life: plants, which feed and grow; animals, which add sensation to the operations of plants; and humans, The Soul Redrive, which add intellect to the operations of animals. Concerning the human soul, his epistemological theory required that, since the knower becomes what he knows, the soul is definitely not corporeal—if it is corporeal when it knows what some corporeal thing is, that thing would come to be within it.
Furthermore, since the rational soul of human beings is a subsistent form and not something made of matter and form, it cannot be destroyed in any natural process. In his discussions of rational psychology, Immanuel Kant — identified the soul as the "I" in the strictest sense, and argued that the existence of inner experience can neither be proved nor disproved. We cannot prove a priori the immateriality of the soul, but rather only so much: that all properties and actions of the soul cannot be recognized from materiality.
It is from the "I", or soul, that Kant proposes transcendental rationalization, but cautions that such rationalization can only determine the limits of knowledge if it is to remain practical. Psychologist James Hillman's archetypal psychology is an attempt to restore the concept of the soul, which Hillman viewed as the "self-sustaining and imagining substrate" upon which consciousness rests.
Hillman described the soul as that "which makes meaning possible, [deepens] events into experiences, is communicated in love, and has a religious concern", as well as "a special relation with death".
Many modern scientists, such as Julien Musolino, hold that the mind is merely a complex machine that operates on the same physical laws as all other objects in the universe. The search for the soul, however, is seen to have been instrumental in driving the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the human body, particularly in the fields of cardiovascular and neurology.
Neuroscience as an interdisciplinary field, and its branch of cognitive neuroscience particularly, operates under the ontological assumption of physicalism. In other words, it assumes—in order to perform its science—that only the fundamental phenomena studied by physics exist. Thus, neuroscience seeks to understand mental phenomena within the framework according to which human thought and behavior are caused solely by physical processes taking place inside the brain, and it operates by the way of reductionism by seeking an explanation for the mind in terms of brain activity.
To study the mind in terms of the brain several methods of functional neuroimaging are used to study the neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive processes that constitute the mind. The evidence from brain imaging indicates that all processes of the mind have physical The Soul Redrive in brain function. Identification of causationand of necessary and sufficient conditions requires explicit experimental manipulation of that activity.
If manipulation of brain activity changes consciousness, then a causal role for that brain activity can be inferred. In a loss-of-function also called "necessity" experiment, a part of the nervous system is diminished or removed in an attempt to determine if it is necessary for a certain process to occur, and in a gain-of-function also called "sufficiency" experiment, an aspect of the nervous system is increased relative to normal.
In addition, neuroscientists are also investigating how the mind develops with the development of the brain. Physicist Sean M. Carroll has written that the idea of a soul is incompatible with quantum field theory QFT. He writes that for a soul to exist: "Not only is new physics required, but dramatically new physics.
Within QFT, there can't be a new collection of 'spirit particles' and 'spirit forces' that interact with our regular atoms, because we would have detected them in existing experiments. Some parapsychologists have attempted to establish, by scientific experiment, whether a soul separate from the brain exists, as is more commonly defined in religion rather than as a synonym of psyche or mind. Milbourne Christopher and Mary Roach have argued that none of the attempts by parapsychologists have yet succeeded.
In Duncan MacDougall conducted an experiment in which he made weight measurements of patients as they died. He claimed that there was weight loss of varying amounts at the time of death; he concluded the soul weighed 21 grams, based on measurements of a single patient and discarding conflicting results. Park has written that MacDougall's experiments "are not regarded today as having any scientific merit" and the psychologist Bruce Hood wrote that "because the weight loss was not reliable or replicable, his findings were unscientific.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the capital of South Korea, see Seoul. For other uses, see Soul disambiguation. Incorporeal essence of a living being. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Spirit. See also: Soul in the BibleChristian mortalismImmortality of the soulChristian conditionalismand Annihilationism.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Further information: Jain philosophy and Jainism and non-creationism. This Section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this Section by adding secondary or tertiary sources.
Main article: Zoroastrianism. Main article: Plato's tripartite theory of soul. Further information: Aristotle's biology. Main article: Philosophy of mind. Retrieved 1 December Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 14 December Retrieved 12 November The New York Times.
Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 18 November In a mountainous kingdom in what is now southeastern Turkey, there lived in the eighth century B. The words instructed mourners to commemorate his life and afterlife with feasts "for my soul that is in this stele. Retrieved 23 February Oxford: George Ronald. It was a group of men and women bent on pleasure, but pleasure of a superior kind, eschewing the vulgarities of The Soul Redrive and card-playing indulged in by the majority of the rich and noble, and looking for their excitement in romance and sentiment.
The name of the group was bestowed by Lord Charles Beresfordwho is quoted as having said: "You all sit and talk about each other's souls — I shall call you the 'Souls'". John Singer Sargent painted a joint portrait of the three Wyndham sisters, as well as an individual portrait of Henry White's wife, Margaret.
This original group of Souls reached its zenith in the early s, and had faded out as a coherent clique by The Coterie was often considered as the second generation of The Souls.
They were a mix of aristocrats, politicians and art-lovers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Soul disambiguation. Main article: The Coterie. Part One: — New York: Knopf,p. Categories : Social history of the United Kingdom Edwardian era. Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from August
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