The phenomenon of electric arc was first described by Vasily V. Since then, discharge light sources have been researched because they create light from electricity considerably more efficiently than incandescent light bulbs. The father of the low-pressure gas discharge tube was German glassblower Heinrich Geisslerwho beginning in constructed colorful artistic cold cathode tubes with different gases in them which glowed with many different colors, called Geissler tubes.
It was found that inert gases like the noble gases neon, argon, krypton or xenon, as well as carbon dioxide worked well in tubes. This technology was commercialized by French engineer Georges Claude in and became neon lightingused in neon signs.
The introduction of the metal vapor lamp, including various metals within the discharge tube, was a later advance. The heat of the gas discharge vaporized some of the metal and the discharge is then produced almost exclusively by the metal vapor. The usual metals are sodium and mercury owing to their visible spectrum emission. One hundred years of research later led to lamps without electrodes which are instead energized by microwave or radio frequency sources.
In addition, light sources of much lower output have been created, extending the applications of discharge lighting to home or indoor use. Each gas, depending on its atomic structure emits certain wavelengths, its emission spectrumwhich determines the color of the light from the lamp.
As a way of evaluating the ability of a light source to reproduce the colors of various objects being lit by the source, the International Commission on Illumination CIE introduced the color rendering index CRI. Some gas-discharge lamps have a relatively low CRI, which means colors they illuminate appear substantially different from how they do under sunlight or other high-CRI illumination.
Lamps are divided into families based on the pressure of gas, and whether or not the cathode is heated. Hot cathode lamps have electrodes that operate at a high temperature and are heated by the arc current The Lamp Is Low the lamp. The heat knocks electrons out of the electrodes by thermionic emissionwhich helps maintain the arc. In many types the electrodes consist of electrical filaments made of fine wire, which are heated by a separate current at startup, to get the arc started.
Cold cathode lamps have electrodes that operate at room temperature. To start conduction in the lamp a high enough voltage the striking voltage must be applied to ionize the gas, so these lamps require higher voltage to start. Low-pressure lamps have working pressure much less than atmospheric pressure. For example, common fluorescent lamps operate at a pressure of about 0. Fluorescent lampsa heated-cathode lamp, the most common lamp The Lamp Is Low office lighting and many other applications, produces up to lumens per watt.
Neon lightinga widely used form of cold-cathode specialty lighting consisting of long tubes filled with various gases at low pressure excited by high voltages, used as advertising in neon signs. Low pressure sodium lampsthe most efficient gas-discharge lamp type, producing up to lumens per watt, but at the expense of very poor color rendering.
The almost monochromatic yellow light is only acceptable for street lighting and similar applications. A small discharge lamp containing a bi-metallic switch is used to start a fluorescent lamp. In this case the heat of the discharge is used to actuate the switch; the starter is contained in an opaque enclosure and the small light output is not used.
Continuous glow lamps are produced for special applications where the electrodes may be cut in the shape of alphanumeric characters and figural shapes.
A flicker light bulb, flicker flame light bulb or flicker glow lamp is a gas-discharge lamp which produces light by ionizing a gasusually neon mixed with helium and a small amount of nitrogen gas, by an electric current passing through two flame shaped electrode screens coated with partially decomposed barium azide. The ionized gas moves randomly between the two electrodes which produces a flickering effect, often marketed as suggestive of a candle flame see image.
High-pressure lamps have a discharge that takes place in gas under slightly less to greater than atmospheric pressure. Metal halide lamps produce almost white light, and attain lumen per watt light output. Applications include indoor lighting of high buildings, parking lots, shops, sport terrains. High pressure sodium lampsThe Lamp Is Low, producing up to lumens per watt produce a broader light spectrum than the low pressure sodium lamps.
Also used for street lighting, and for artificial photoassimilation for growing plants. The Lamp Is Low pressure mercury-vapor lamps are the oldest high pressure lamp type and have been replaced in most applications by metal halide and the high pressure sodium lamps.
They require a shorter arc length. A high-intensity discharge HID lamp is a type of electrical lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube.
Compared to other lamp types, relatively high arc power exists for the arc length. Examples of HID lamps include mercury-vapor lampsmetal halide lampsceramic discharge metal halide lampssodium vapor lamps and xenon arc lamps. The Xenon flash lamp produces a single flash of light in the millisecond-microsecond range and is commonly used in film, photography and theatrical lighting.
Particularly robust versions of The Lamp Is Low lamp, known as strobe lightscan produce long sequences of flashes, allowing for the stroboscopic examination of motion.
This has found use in the study of mechanical motion, in medicine and in the lighting of dance halls. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Gas-filled tube. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: High-intensity discharge lamp. Main article: Xenon flash lamp. Electric arc Electric glow discharge Emission spectrum Fluorescent lamp Gas-filled tube Hydrargyrum medium-arc iodide lamp List of light sources Over-illumination.
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