We wrote as though it was a complete unit on its own, by myself at the start, and then of course Ralph Yaw had a lot to do with it, and Joe Rizzo also had a hand.
Ralph Yaw, though 13 years older than Kenton, was a musician-friend from Stanley's boy- hood, and had previously arranged for Chick Webb and Cab Calloway. Yaw was highly enthused by Stan's new ideas, though the extent of Ralph's creative input into the establishment of the orchestra's style is hard to validate. Yaw himself commented: 'The band 1 am working with is something quite special and different. Stanley Kenton is the leader and 1 am working with him.
We do the arranging, and 1 think we have cooked up something new in style. A swell new treatment of saxes and a couple of other style tricks do it. The saxes are treated to my mind in the right way for the first time. It really scares me. Joe Rizzo had some classical training, and made himself known to Kenton during the Balboa engagement. Joe arranged This Love of Mine' and 'El Choclo,' and there were many things he had written which were a very important part of the beginning library.
Rizzo was later drafted into the army, but contin- ued to write for the band while in service until In later years he settled for security, and became a permanent arranger on Lawrence Welk's TV show. In the s radio was the equivalent of today's TV, and bands filled a lot of air- time. Every leader's ambition was to have his own radio show, and such was Kenton's impact that when the Mutual Broadcasting Sys- tem expressed an interest in airing the band nationally, the merchants of Balboa clubbed together to help pay for the installation of a line from the Rendezvous to the MBS radio station at Santa Ana.
They came in for nothing to hear us broadcast, because we wanted an audience there, so that listeners back east could hear us playing our music to a crowd and hear their reaction.
And this was the thing that actually started calling attention nationally to what we were doing at the Rendezvous Ballroom. What "Old Bob," the janitor who lovingly cared for the carefully waxed ballroom floor, thought of the sand deposited all over his creation, is not recorded!
Two of the best examples of authentic recordings from these Ren- dezvous broadcasts are included in the iconic Tantara four-CD set called Revelations.
Both "Stardust" and "Sophisticated Lady" have a very dif- ferent aura about them from any of the studio recordings, partly because of their length both play for over four minutesgiving arranger Stanley time to stretch out. The band plays with a great deal of warmth, and the gorgeous saxophone section soli prove this innovative styling was already fully developed.
As news of the Kenton band spread, musical and show business per- sonalities as well as the youngsters came to hear the band at the Ren- dezvous, including jimmie Lunceford one of Stan's most enthusiastic boostersDown Beat writer Dave Dexter, song-writer johnny Mercer, and promoter Carlos Gastel.
Among the regular Saturday night visitors was film star Errol Flynn, who used to sail in from San Pedro on his yacht, though Flynn's interest lay as much with the chicks as the music.
He was often accompanied by a guy nobody took much notice of, by the name of Howard Hughes, even then a rather mysterious gentleman. Already evident was a phenomenon that would haunt Stan through- out his career.
Those who loved the Kenton music did so with an enthusi- asm and intensity that belied their numbers, giving the impression that the band was more popular among the general public than was actually the case.
Despite all the success stories, by no means every mid-week night at the Rendezvous was a rave-up. As Charles Emge wrote in Down Beat: "It would be an exaggeration to say the band has been a 'sensa- tion. Intermission Riff - Vic Lewis - Vic Lewis Jam Sessions Volume 7: 1948-1954 - Plays Stan Kenton - (Vinyl fact 1 remember times that I actually worried about whether the owner of the ballroom was going to come out financially or not. Even then Stan was reaching beyond his audience.
Because even at Balboa, many of the kids didn't really come to listen. Most of the bands that played Balboa were Mickey Mouse bands: people just wanted to dance, and they didn't really care too much as long as you played songs they could dance to.
But Kenton was one of the first that was going to teach them something. These people were going to walk out hearing something they hadn't heard before. The trials of adolescence were about to begin. Hollywood Highs and Big Apple Blues - Popular music, then as now, was part of show business, with the emphasis on business. To those running the jungle, musical creativ- ity was only as commendable as the money it generated. These hard- headed business men would see Stan primarily in terms of dollar signs, as "Kenton" became a brand name to be marketed before the public like any other commodity in its particular field.
Essential to every pro- fessional leader was a personal manager to watch over his interests. InCarlos Gastel was just starting his managerial career, and eager to sign new artists to join his principal client Sonny Dunham, whose band never made the big-time. Gastel was not called the Happy Honduran without good reason. A man of gargantuan appetites, both for gourmet foods and life in general, Carlos lived in the fast lane, and was keen to have Kenton on his roster.
Audree Kenton described Gastel as "One of the most colorful figures in show business — big, handsome, persuasive and flamboyant. Carlos was wild, an exciting man, and fun to be with. In later years, Kenton liked to tell the story of how he and Gastel got together in a restaurant and hammered out an agreement written on a paper napkin, and Audree confirmed: "They never had a formal contract, it was always a hand-shake.
Throughout the Forties, Carlos worked tirelessly to further the Kenton career. Most of GastePs moves were behind the scenes, and hence attracted little publicity, but it is widely acknowledged that Carlos has never received the recognition he deserves. Second only to Kenton himself, it was GasteTs business acumen that did much to push the band to the top.
Carlos moved swiftly. Within days, Stan was signed to a seven-year contract with GAC General Amusement Corporationone of Ameri- ca's most prestigious booking agencies, which took a special interest in promoting new bands. Top man was Tom Rockwell, who described Kenton as "the most promising band property to be uncovered since Artie Shaw. It was also the first big mistake. Infamous for the signs "Where's the Melody?
Jack Kapp could have had scant realization of the true nature of Kenton's music, and viewed the band simply as just another dance unit that might hit the high time and bring big bucks into the company's cof- fers. The sole exception was "Taboo," a popular number from the band's library.
Clinton Roemer attended the date and told me, "The mild ad-lib solos from this first Decca session were demanded by the producer, who wanted to hear more melody. This accounts for the rather tame Red Dorris solo on 'Adios. By the time the Kenton cover versions came out, I don't think they got too much exposure.
Reviews in were lukewarm; both Down Beat and Metronome referred to the "weak material," which was certainly not of Stanley's choosing. Far more typical of the band's fare were the transcriptions recorded for C.
MacGregor on inch discs licensed only for radio play. Because of the band's association with Balboa, It was decided to create programs that would sound like the band playing live at the Rendezvous Ballroom, as Audree Kenton recalled, "We recorded dozens of titles for MacGregor. They were done in a very small studio, using the standard microphone set-up for those days.
We also had Jimmy Lyons on hand, he wrote most of the narrative and introduced the titles, as he also did on the early MBS remotes from Balboa.
And all the audience noise you hear on the early MacGregor transcriptions is not legitimate audience at all — it's us screaming, trying to make noise enough for hundreds of people.
Directly a tune ended, the musicians would throw down their instruments and shout and applaud wildly. It was quite funny to watch, but there really was a great spirit in that band.
Around 60 titles from this period are played in excellent sound, affording a better oppor- tunity to audition the band than many from much later peri- ods.
It was really because of those transcriptions that we were able to get started in music. Stan had shown his abrasive and agitated stylings at least as compared with the super-smooth swing of bands like Miller and Basie excited the kids, but his appeal to more affluent, sophisticated dancers remained unproven. In any case, however big on the West Coast, no band could be said to have "arrived" in the national sense until it had been successful in the major cities across the country, in particular the Big Apple.
New York could make or break an artist within the space of a single engage- ment. Thanks no doubt to the machinations of Carlos Gastel working on the GAC hierarchy, Stanley was booked into New York's Famous Door, a night club that featured jazz artists, for a four-week engagement com- mencing November But fate decreed otherwise when an opportunity arose at the Hollywood Palladium.
Even today the name Hollywood Palladium has a certain panache attached to it. Audree Kenton explains; "The Palladium was all Hollywood.
It had chandeliers, red velvet carpets, and it was a really ritzy place when it was new. They served liquor, and they served dinner— the food was terrible! It was a piece for a young man to take his best girl, but it was going to cost him money.
The Palladium was fancy, one of Hollywood's best, in an excellent location on Sunset Boulevard. It filled a need and was an immediate success the minute it opened, and did great business for 20 years. Besides, Cohen had visited the Rendezvous during Stan's final week there, and had not found the music to his liking. He was no better impressed on his second Kenton audition at Glendale's Civic Auditorium on Octo- ber 4. What did attract Cohen was the 3, attendance at Glendale which had an average of 1, Shortly after this, Cohen found himself with a five-week gap in bookings, between the bands of Alvino Rey and Tommy Dorsey, following an unexpected cancellation.
The Famous Door's management was persuaded to postpone Stanley's appearance there to the New Year, and Kenton's November 25 opening at the Palladium was set.
After much deliberation, the billing was changed from Stanley to Stan, since all the kids used the less formal abbreviation anyway. Though he became universally "Stan" Kenton to his fans, close friends and fam- ily continued to address him by the preferred Stanley. Stan was a showman as well as a musician, as evidenced by his conducting almost a gymnastic display in itselfand first night at the Palladium Stanley waited near the main entrance of the ballroom, while the band took their places.
When they were all seated, Stan let go with a loud shout and ran across the floor, through the crowd which had already formed, and leapt onto the bandstand. As his feet touched the floor, he signalled the down-beat for the band's "Theme. But the Palladium's patrons were generally older and more blase than the Rendezvous' teenagers, and whether Stan's unorthodox stylings and absence of pop songs would have continued to draw the crowds in such numbers will never be known.
In December '41 it was the Japanese who pulled the rug from under Kenton's feet. Attendances slumped during the dreadful uncertainty that followed the December 7 attack on Pearl Harbor. As America reeled into the holocaust of war, people remained tied to their radios while the net- works maintained a hour news service to up-date the latest reports on the war situation.
Much of the late-night sustaining music between the news bulletins was aired from the Hollywood Palladium, the West Coast being America's last time-belt, and still open after night-spots on the East Coast had closed. Despite the circumstances, it was a case of being in the right place at the right time, since during the emergency the networks pooled resources and aired the same programs coast-to-coast, and Kenton gained much valuable exposure from the extra nation-wide broadcasts.
Count Basie would tell the story of how the Basie band was en route to a job in the middle of the night, when the Count had the bus stopped and invited his musicians to listen to one of Stan's Palladium broadcasts. The best of these was "Reed Rapture," with seven saxes shown in V-formation though Alvarez and fellow-trumpeter Earl Collier are there for visual effect only. Artistically filmed with clever use of silhouettes, the title is conducted by a very young, intense Stan Kenton, who also plays a short piano solo.
Then, early in the second big mistake took place, this time with far-reaching consequences, when the Famous Door was jilted for a sec- ond time, in favor of a New York opening at the Roseland Ballroom.
Charles Emge was so right when he wrote in Down Beat: "The band is at the crucial point now. From here they go up or down. These boys believe in themselves and their music, but the real struggle is ahead. They've got to work, but they can't take the wrong spot. Hart's "Ten Cents a Dance" was never going to accommodate the jazz- happy Kenton crew.
Probably there were forces at work beyond Gastel's control; or at that point can it have seemed the Kenton outfit was so invincible noth- ing could stand in its way?
Perhaps a clue lies in the fact that Rose- land owner Lou Brecker had an interest in the Hollywood Palladium, where Stanley had recently played with such success. Certainly Brecker expected something similar at Roseland, for at GastePs insistence it was stipulated in the contract that the band should play only music of Stan's choice, and that instead of the usual Mondays, the band should be off each Tuesday, by tradition "South American night," when the relief band would play instead.
In fact, from the very first night the Kenton band and the Roseland clien- tele failed to connect on any level. And when the dancers didn't dance, the hostesses failed to earn, and complained to the management, who in turn bore down on Kenton.
Very rapidly the situation reached crisis point. The band was hot, and it was like. We re from California, listen to us. After one week of a scheduled eight-week booking, Stan was fired. The band actually played for three weeks, the last two on notice. Dave Dexter's recall is compelling: "On Stan's opening night at Roseland you couldn t get in, the place was packed.
Every music publisher in the East was there. Well, they all left after about an hour. They hated him, because he didn t have one 'plug' song. Stan didn't want any plug songs, he hated pop music. The dancers hated him too, because he didn't have any Latin rhythms.
So when he was fired I was with him, standing on the curb in the snow, waiting for a cab, and trying to soothe his feelings. All Stan said was, 'And on top of this, the goddamn Japs lobbed some shells onto the beach in Santa Barbara.
Let's get the hell out of here! Stan may have been an ideal- ist, but he was also a realist, and the fact was, in every big band was basically a dance unit that played its share of hit songs. Some, like Glenn Miller and Jimmy Dorsey, not only played the hits, their record- ings made the hits. There would be a good case for arguing that even without the deba- cle that was Roseland, Stan would have been forced to change policy sooner or later. So Kenton took stock, and decided that a band with con- cessions was better than no band at all.
As Stan phrased it: "1 was really proud of the Balboa band. We played good music, and nobody will ever convince me that we didn't.
It was different, walloping and getting better every day. Well, you know what happened in New York. We laid the big- gest egg ever seen on Broadway. After that 1 got confused. And 1 went on like that for quite a while. Even in New York, not everything had been a disaster.
Stan's sec- ond and last Decca session was a marked improvement over the first, because the band was allowed to play numbers from its own library.
Highlights include a long version of "St. James Infirmary," which had to be issued on Decca 's inch black label, and a spirited take on "El Choclo," with a beautifully formed Dorris tenor solo. In total, these Decca recordings are further convincing evidence that the groundwork for future conceptions was conceived by Stan himself.
In the words of Pete Rugolo: "With the deep, low saxophones, the off-beat rhythm, and the high brass, you could tell it was Kenton from the start. The Kenton Sound was there on the very first records, it was very different from any- body else. With 15 weekly pay-packets to fill Stan had added a third trombone in New York, and now Eve Knight came in as vocalistKenton couldn't afford to be without work, or his band would soon be raided by other leaders for eligible sidemen, and unheralded credit goes to Gastel and Rockwell that just two days after leaving Roseland, on February 28 Stan started his next job: a week's engagement that must have been set up while the band was working its notice in New York.
In Stan's words: "We managed to survive through the goodness of a guy's heart that owned a couple of ballrooms in Boston. He would have to play pop songs and accept whatever bookings GAC offered.
Stan's first theatre date a combination of vaudeville and featured movie actually brought him back to NYC in Marchbut to Brook- lyn rather than Manhattan, and at the somewhat less than illustrious Flatbush Theatre. Whatever, the audience sat and listened during the band spot, so in that respect it resembled a concert setting, and Ken- ton premiered a new work he had written in different tempos and sym- phonic style indicative of the direction Stan eventually wanted the band to take.
Titled "Concerto to End All Concertos," the strong melody was one of Kenton's most enduring compositions, first recorded inand played regularly for a further decade. Stan explained, "1 wrote 'Concerto' because 1 wanted people to hear a little of the trumpets and trombones, as well as the soloists.
We used it as a showpiece, and made kind of a production out of it. Others left of their own accord, including Howard Rumsey, the first of many Kenton bass players who would dissent with the drummer over time-keeping and who also regretted the loss of the "family feeling" that had inspired the original Balboa band. By the end of more than half the men who had played at Balboa were gone, as Stan recalled: "There was a constant flow of musicians coming and going all the time, and there was 21 22 Stan Kenton: This Is an Orchestra!
I recall once a guitar player that I hired to take the place of a fellow who had been inducted, received his own induction papers before he'd even played a note with the band. During the early Forties it was a real struggle to keep the band together at all, let alone make any money, and Stan himself a married man with a baby to support lived literally hand to mouth.
Bob Gioga, in his role as Band Manager, proved a constant source of sup- port to Kenton, both by his handling of everyday affairs in running the band, and maintaining morale when it was most needed. Bob would be the only member of the original Balboa outfit to survive without a break into the Fifties, finally surrendering his baritone chair in Despite all the difficulties, Kenton strove continually to improve his band.
Because he spent so little time himself at the piano, for most of Stan hired Ted Repay, the only full-time pianist other than Kenton ever to play in the band. But then Stan let him go because he missed the luxury of slipping into the piano seat himself whenever the mood arose.
To compensate, Stan hired a fourth trumpet player to raise the level of the brass, and replaced Eve Knight with Dolly Mitchell— but still tended to rely on Red Dorris as his principal singer!
But as always, it was the writers who brought new ideas into the band. Ken Hanna then just 21 years old didn't have his own sound, but was adept at copying other people's.
Hanna's "Somnambulism" sounds more like Rugolo than Rugolo! Ken studied the band's Decca recordings and learned what made Stanley tick before presenting him- self to Kenton, who recalled: "Ken Hanna was the first guy I ever met, even before Rugolo, who had the same feeling as me.
Ken came to a rehearsal and we hadn't played more than 16 bars when I realized he wrote exactly as I did, and I couldn't believe it. Shirley recalled, "1 jumped at the chance to write for the band, as Stan assured me he d use anything I came up with in the way of experimental stuff, either pop or jazz.
We brought in woodwinds and classic voicings on the ballads, and I feel I had some influence on the direction the band Hanging On 23 moved into after the war.
Shirley was one of the literally hundreds of alumni who paid trib- ute to Stan personally: "That was a wild and woolly band, and we had many adventures, some of them quite funny, though they did tend to get a bit illicit from time to time. Never including Stan though. He was one of the straightest men Tve ever met. Dedicated, clean, sober, and always concerned for his men and their welfare. His example inspired many of us to keep writing, even when it seemed that the 'squares' were taking over completely.
Not only the players, but the band's style was also changing, with less emphasis on the jerky, staccato rhythms that had originally dominated. For most of December the band played a prestige engagement in the Panther Room of Chicago's Hotel Sher- man, and during the preceding months Stan had learned a great deal of what was expected from a dance band in such a location to avoid being booted out after the first week.
Men Blasting" with plenty of pop songs from Red and Dolly, and earned the respect of both the public and critics in return: Samuel Lesner, Chicago Daily News, December 9, '"Eddie Meyers on flute and Bob Gioga on English horn, with backgrounds by the band, pro- vide a performance of 'mood music' entirely new in the popular field.
Kenton, youthful, aggressive salesman, is a suitable front for this powerhouse, which dishes out torrid rhythms with razor-edge precision. Many ideas have been borrowed from the successful Negro [sic] bands, enlarged and improved upon. For the next ten years Buddy would be in and out of the band like a yo-yo, but mostly he was in, and rightly referred to as "The Boss of the Brass Section.
Buddy survived his initiation, and in he had two things going for him: he was a good trumpet player, and at 17 he wasn't going to be inducted in a hurry. As well as the high trumpets, Stan found great satisfaction in explor- ing the low sounds of the orchestra, illustrated right from the start by his exceptional writing for Bob Gioga's baritone sax.
During another milestone took place when Bart Varsalona switched to bass trombone. According to Bart, "I had an idea. The band was playing a lot of heavy bottom, and I happened to see this bass trombone in the window of a music store in San Francisco. I went in and tried it out.
It felt pretty comfortable and the price was right. I brought it on the job that night, and Kenton saw a difference immediately. He said, 'Great, keep it!
During the war, all show people gave freely of their time to entertain the armed forces with special live performances and recordings. Perhaps the largest dedicated organization, and certainly the one with the most bountiful legacy, was APRS Armed Forces Radio Servicewhich recorded both their own programs and preserved many radio broadcasts on inch transcriptions that were sent regularly for rebroadcasting around the globe.
Dance bands were the mainstay of series like One Night Stand and Spotlight Bands, and many Kenton programs have survived thanks to the work of APRS which being a non-commercial organization was granted immunity from the recording ban. Stan only narrowly escaped the draft himself because of his age and marital status, making him that much keener to help the war effort through entertainment, especially for those in uniform.
Most legendary of all the war-time morale-boosters was Bob Hope, who seemed the embodiment of all things American, yet was actually born in Britain. The music spot on the show was held by Skinnay Ennis, but became vacant when Skinnay received his army-call.
The Kenton band filled in for a single show, and so impressed Hope with its disciplined, no- nonsense approach, that he determined Kenton should become his new house-band. And what Hope wanted, Hope usually got!
In fact, everyone was delighted, except for Stan Kenton. In the event, Kenton had little choice but to accede, since to refuse would have meant offending all-powerful GAC, who could punish him in a hundred different ways, in particular with indifferent bookings that could well drive the band into insolvency. As it was, being on call for the weekly broadcasts the band was unable to leave the LA area, except as part of the Hope entourage, but between shows could play only one-nighters within miles of LA because of contractual commitments to the Hollywood Palladium that Stan had signed in Overall, it may be assumed Kenton was not best pleased with his lot.
At least the one-year contract with Hope ensured financial security. After two years of hard slog, a coterie of fans had been built up among jazz enthusiasts, but the band had acquired none of the trappings that guaranteed national acceptance: there had been no hit records, no regu- lar radio show, no songs had become identified with the band in the public's mind, no singers had acquired popular significance. What was more contentious was his choice of Karl George, because Karl was black, and during the war years studio bands were strictly segregated, something Kenton would have known full well.
Stan himself had no prejudices, and Karl George was an excellent player, which will have been Kenton's first consideration. But the critical timing chosen by Stan to hire his first black musician, some four weeks into the Hope season, was a challenge to the status quo to say the least.
Hope's reaction would be crucial, and it was reported that when Bob first noticed George among the trumpets, he simply observed to Kenton, "1 see you have a new guy in the band," but made no other comment, or to his credit raised any objection. It was simply accepted, despite press reports pointing out the unusual situation: "George turned down offers from Count Basie and Cab Calloway in favor of the Kenton offer. He is the first Negro [sic] to regularly play a commercial radio show with a white band on the West Coast.
In October Capitol and Decca succumbed to the Union's demands for increased session payments, and resumed recording.
Columbia and RCA held out for another full year! Somehow Capi- tol, with its slogan "First with the Hits from Hollywood," managed to com- bine commercialism with good music, and from the start supported Stan all the way.
Many voices have spoken of a similarity with a melody from Ravels Daphnis and Chloe," though Stan always denied any connec- tion, and certainly the Kenton orchestration was entirely original. There was a lot of speculation about a suitable title, Stan wanting to label it "Production on Theme," but as he related, "Capitol finally decided that if your slogan is to be 'Artistry in Rhythm,' let's call it by that name, and of course it's stuck ever since. More importantly, "Artistry in Rhythm" contains the clearest evi- dence yet that the Kenton Sound was Stan's personal creation, includ- ing the high trumpets and the distinctive, choral trombone ensemble that became a Kenton trademark.
Others, like Ray Wetzel and Kai Winding, might perfect those techniques in the future, but the founda- tions are already laid, and in retrospect are Stan's greatest legacy to his own orchestra. Stan didn't give too much thought to the rather simple little riff he'd constructed during that he called "Eager Beaver," until it started catching on a year later.
George Simon writing in the July Metro- nome mis-titled it "Roger Beaver," but was enthusiastic, calling it "An original that spotted some moving riffs and exceptionally interesting key changes," and as it developed into a Kenton "standard" Stan belat- edly realized its potential: "1 was trying to write something for my band that would be like Tn the Mood' for Glenn Miller, or 'Woodchopper's Ball for Woody Herman.
What 1 wanted was a commercial hit, a trade- mark, and fortunately it worked, If the recordings from this date of "Eager Beaver" and Frank Comstock's reworking of "Harlem Folk Dance" are compared with each other, a huge difference is immediately apparent: a difference that set Kenton apart from other bands, that delighted the fans, and that would soon infuriate the critics.
Both arrangements "swing," insofar as there is regular pulsation and a steady beat. But "Harlem" has a more conventional, more "foot- tapping" swing. The rhythm on "Beaver" is far less relaxed, less loose. It is heavily accentuated, and plays with a relentlessly persistent, almost Hanging On 1 27 mechanical urgency.
Stan's style, his sound, the way he wrote, made it almost impossible to "swing" in a light, airy manner. Kenton's music was heavy, masculine, solid, even on a simple riff like "Eager Beaver. Fortunately, the fans were less intolerant. Large numbers would flock to his defense, and thrill to his music. It might be outside the jazz mainstream, but Stan was big enough to create his own musical river — and swim successfully in it for almost four adventurous decades.
In reality, no one tuned into the Hope show to listen to the music. To most listeners, the house band was an anony- mous unit, reduced to playing musical cues and accompanying the very "legit" voice of Frances Langford and the guest stars from the movie world who clamored to be on the show to bask in the reflected glory and the high audience ratings.
It was probably impossible to be around Hope so much without a little of the starshine rubbing off. For the first time, Kenton had close encounters with real stardom on a daily basis, and he must have wished for some of the enthusiasm and devotion that radiated towards Hope from the Service audiences to be deflected upon himself, to be a top star in his own right, rather than an aspiring bandleader just about holding his own in a highly competitive market. And if that meant reaching a wider audience than the kids who relished his "hep" music, perhaps that wouldn't be too great a price to pay.
It changed into something that didn't have that much personality for about three years, including the 'clarinets' band of 1 That reference to clarinets came about when Red Dorris was inducted into the army in Aprila triple blow to Kenton who lost a tenor star, singer, and friend all at the same time. Dorris indeed had briefly led the band when Kenton was stricken with appendicitis earlier in the year.
As replacement singer, Kenton brought in Gene Howard, whose appealing but disconcertingly bland voice lacked any individuality or uniqueness of its own. I explained I wasn't very adept on the saxophone 28 Dance Band Days 1 29 never having played onebut could write my own arrangements.
Those were rough days for Stan — for all of us. It was earlythe war was at its peak, we were making very little money, and the prob- lems of transportation and accommodations made it almost unbear- able, but Stan was a constant inspiration which, together with his great sense of humor, kept us going. It was then that Stan came up with the idea to back Howard's bal- lads with a five-man clarinet section, presumably reckoning that if one clarinet could do it for Miller, a whole section would be five times better.
It wasn't! For one thing, not all the sax men were equally skilled on the clarinet, so they were often out of tune, but even when they did blend, the sound was weak and unattractive. Kenton persevered with the con- cept for some two years, sharing the writing with Howard, before drop- ping the clarinets almost overnight in Personnel changes required two new tenor-men at the same time in April For professional experience Stan hired Dave Matthews, and to limit expenses a youngster named Stan Getz.
Another future saxo- phone star. Art Pepper, had previously played briefly in the band before induction, and had played his first recorded solo on "Harlem Folk Dance" at the band's initial Capitol session in Matthews quickly became bored with the band's increasingly commercial style, and when he quit in June, Getz moved into the solo chair, "And played Dave's solos better than Dave played them, note for note," recalled fellow-saxist Chet Ball.
Rizzo makes no attempt to play down, even empha- sizes the choppy nature of the tune, but continually drives forward at an exhilarating pace, with clever incorporation of thematic strands within the melody. The sense of swing comes from the various sections of the orchestra, rather than the heavily accented bass and drums, which oper- ate almost as a separate section of the band, rather than an integrated unit providing the rhythmic pulse.
Five short, well-spaced solos add vari- ety, the first probably Matthews but conceivably Getz, a very fine state- ment from John Carroll's open trumpet, then definitely Matthews, a spot 30 Stan Kenton: This Is an Orchestra! This one number shows beyond question how far the band has progressed as a professional, well-drilled instrument, based on the principles Rizzo had helped formulate at Balboa.
Lacking a clear direction from any single hired arranger, the band sti looked to Kenton to set a lead, and Kenton was unsure. While he personally liked the Rizzo-type music, it was the schmaltz that the pub- lic preferred, and which he actually found eosier to write. So Stan con- centrated on Gene Howard's ballads, with songs like "Our Waltz" and "Together" especially anodyne examples of the genre.
Things moved forward when Dolly Mitchell followed Red Dorris with whom she had formed a romantic attachment out of the band, to join Kay Kyser.
Stan was left without the essential adornment of a girl singer and was encouraged by Carlos Gastel to take on Anita O'Day. Anita had made a name for herself with Gene Krupa, but was finding apathetic pu 1C response as a single, and manager Gastel persuaded her she needed more big-band experience. Kenton indeed had a spot open but as Milt Bernhart put it: "Everybody knew that Anita was problems, on the hoof.
If you brought her, you got somebody who was outspoken, who would complain about everything. And with Anita on Stan's band the hrst thing was the drummer. Stan thought he was fine, but Anita called im a tub-thumper. It was not the easiest of unions, but Stan probably came out best. For the first time the band featured a jazz voice as opposed to a dance-band singer, and Anita brought him a hit record with her very first recording. Nevertheless, Anita was a big attraction, as Stan recalled: Anita had had a couple of hit records with Gene Krupa, so having her come with the Kenton band, which was pretty young in those days, was Q big feather in our cap.
Replacements no doubt weren't to Dance Band Days 31 Anita's liking, but by then she'd found something else to focus on, like having "real jazz-man" Dave Matthews write her arrangements. There was no suggestion from anyone when the Hope season ended that Stan should return for a second stint. The band was now estab- lished in its own right and on a sounder financial footing. Nevertheless, the new-found freedom brought about no sudden change of style. Stan continued his search for hits that would place Kenton platters on every juke-box in the land.
Common sense, instinct, call it what you will, Stan was aware that the band had to be fully solvent, and acquire a strong power-base of dedicated fans, before he could push musical boundar- ies. Too many bands tried too hard, too fast, to last, the Boyd Raeburn orchestra being a prime example.
Gene was in and out of the band like a yo-yo — he liked a good time. No doubt about it. Of course, Stan knew all about Roland's life-style — that was Gene's choice — but Stan also knew this guy had no limitations. Gene liked to write swinging charts. Woody Herman was his favorite band, and Kenton wanted Gene to write his way, and so there were con- flicts.
But if you listen closely to Gene's charts you'll hear swing take place along with what Stan wanted. Try Two Moose in a Caboose.
Talent, why this guy had so much he didn't really know what he could do — and don't forget, he also played trumpet, valve trombone and mel- lophonium at different times in the band. So now you know — then came Gene Roland! In retrospect, as Anthony hints. Gene Roland's tal- ent as musician and writer was equalled only by his unreliability and his inability to stick in one place for any length of time: personality defects which Kenton might overlook because he needed Roland's tal- ents Gene was the only arranger ever to feature in all four decades of Stan's careerbut which at the same time would prevent Roland from ever acquiring quite the same status as the most famous Kenton stars.
There's often a sense of frustration when musicians talk about Roland, of promise unfulfilled, of potential never quite realized. While they were with Bob Hope the band had been spared some of the difficulties of war-time America, because Hope was working with servicemen for the War Department and hence received priority treat- ment. Because of gasoline shortages, the band often had to travel by trains, which were always packed to capacity.
On one occasion Bob Gioga worked himself to the front of the line by shouting, "Make way for the recruits! The joys of the war- time road! By the fall of Stan had raised the brass to its almost-full com- plement of four trombones and five trumpets, and hired Boots Mussulli as jazz alto player. So-called because he could plumb the lower reaches of his instrument.
Boots was a full-toned, skillful soloist in the Benny Carter tradition who would play an increasingly important role in the band over the next few years. Mussulli is one of the giants of the "Art- istry" orchestra now taking shape. One of the drawbacks of a hit record was that fans expected the band to play that song at least once every performance, and when a vocal was involved the strain and monotony were exacerbated, until the singer came to detest the very song that had caused the success.
Anita O'Day had never been really comfortable in the Kenton organization, which she found too stuffy and rigid for her free-wheeling life-style, and in February she quit, her departure being described in the media as "abrupt," or as one writer put it, "Anita jumped the band in one of her outbursts.
It must be said, O'Day recalled the circumstances quite dif- ferently, but Kenton confirmed the press reports: "We were in the middle of a job in St. Louis, and all of a sudden Anita comes up to me and says, T've had it! Anita had been a popular personality, and her unprofessional depar- ture left a gaping hole in the band's line-up. This time Gastel had no suc- cessor in the wings, and as Gene Howard recalled: "It seemed we never would find a suitable replacement.
Every week a new girl would try out, but none of them seemed to have it. It wasn't until we opened at the Ori- ental Theatre in Chicago in the spring of that the first real prospect came along.
Shirley Luster's biggest break thus far had been a short-lived tenancy with Boyd Raeburn, terminated when she was laid low with scarlet fever. Her career was making little progress when she heard Kenton was look- ing for a new singer, and presented him with some test recordings she had made.
She agreed to change her name, and of course at that time she became June Christy. What June did was what Stanley told her to do: he created June. But neither did Kenton exercise a Sven- gali-like influence over the way she performed, and in fact June told George Simon: "Stan always inspired me, but he never told me how to sing. At the same time, June's own style was far from fully developed inand she was replacing a particular sound to which the fans had become accustomed; so if Christy's main influence was O'Day, Stan wasn't likely to discourage her.
She had Anita's style, and even Intermission Riff - Vic Lewis - Vic Lewis Jam Sessions Volume 7: 1948-1954 - Plays Stan Kenton - (Vinyl a little like her. At first she did Anita's material, and then Stan developed a style for her and we gradu- ally got away from the O'Day thing.
At first Kenton limited her repertoire to up-tempo tunes, labelling her with the slogan "The Little Girl that Sings with a Beat," but it soon became clear that she was equally suited to sing bal- lads when her iconic interpretation of "Willow Weep for Me" became a classic. Christy had no musical training, and was unable to read music. She sang by instinct and natural ability. If she was unaware of her tech- nical limitations, her critics soon made her cognizant of them, complain- ing of faulty intonation, of an imperfect vibrato, and that she often sang flat.
Sometimes it was true, and in classical music such defects would be damning. But jazz has its own set of rules, or rather non-rules, in which self-expression and individuality are more important than perfect tech- nique.
In jazz, if it sounds right, it is right, and Christy sounded just right to the thousands of fans who recognized in the character of her voice an 34 Stan Kenton: This Is on Orchestra! Stan was soon persuaded he had found the voice he was seeking, and personally vetoed any music lessons for Christy, which he was afraid would destroy her originality. Kenton expressed it well when he said, "June brings something new to swing— not just rhythm but real character. That was her style. She would sing something a little flat, and raise it up, or lower it down, and that was her uniqueness.
It didn't matter if it was flat, not at all. She sings with such unassailable authority and enthusiasm that "June Christy" was firmly established as a "name" vocalist on the strength of her first-ever waxing, something which, she said, restored her confidence in her own abilities at a time when she most needed such assurance.
Once Stan was satisfied they had the best possible rendition of "Tam- pico in the can, the band settled down to record a composition Kenton called Southern Scandal," so-termed because it was based on "Tara's Theme" from the movie Gone With the Wind, which involved an infamous relationship and was set in America's deep south.
Even more than "Eager Beaver, "Scandal" was the creation that defined Kenton as an influential force in modern jazz. It swings, but is far too inflexible and structured to be a suitable vehicle for future improvisation. He was as much concerned with sound and mood, with color and composition.
Kenton wasn't even inclined to compete for that honor. He wanted to be the best, but on very different terms, with a distinctive orchestral sound, and a post-war modern music that would be as different from anyone else as Duke Ellington had been in the past.
Aided by Universal's extraordinarily vibrant recording technique, the orchestra sounds big, bright, and ballsy, wonderfully impressive inand still "modern" in big-band terms even into the next century. Buddy Childers' scream-trumpet tops the high-powered brass near the start, in direct contrast to the calming interplay between Stan's piano and Max Wayne's bass.
Freddie Zito's aggressive trombone solo came to be seen as a Kenton trademark, perfected in future bands by the likes of Kai Wind- ing and Milt Bernhart. But most of all, "Southern Scandal" defies con- vention, combining elements of swing within a rigid, formal framework. The critics, sensing a further erosion of their traditional reference points, hated it.
Kenton fans loved the juxtaposition of the two styles, the inten- sity of the beat, and the polished, incisive orchestral performance. This was artistry on the cutting edge of modern music, and it took the jazz world by storm, provoking controversy wherever it was played. In retrospect, —46 are the years when Kenton had the greatest personal impact not only on the sound of the band, but also the music played. Once Pete Rugolo joined the team, Stan's own abilities were such that he was unable to compete with the complexities of the more advanced music.
But by then Stan had clearly defined the orchestra's route, and had won over public support. The future might not always be easy, but if Stan wanted it, that there would be a Kenton orchestra in the years ahead seemed certain.
A New Beginning During the summer of 19A5 Stan was giving serious thought to the future direction of the orchestra. With the end of the war came a desire for change. Public acceptance of the more daring modern bands was growing, the Woody Herman Herd setting a lead, and Kenton became increasingly convinced this was the time to return to the jazz course he had largely abandoned when joining Bob Hope in As Kenton dramatically phrased it in a famous quote that helped cement his own reputation among fans as a virtuoso of deific proportions: "I remember one morning in Boston, I woke up and 1 said to Gene Howard, Gene, 1 think the Lord must have spoken to me last night.
The clarinets are out. We need a mood— a JAZZ mood. We lead players are a particular breed of people— we don't hear things the same way as a soloist. But Stan liked my work, and the way I interpreted the book, although many times 1 didn't really have a good feeling of what I was doing.
The music then was very different from some of the later bands. We didn't swing, and I didn't really like the music, but Stan, being the person he was, convinced me to stay.
He said the reed section was mine to do what I wanted, and true to his word he meant it. I told the section to make their phrases by listening to me — the lead man.
Later, I had the idea of not using any vibrato on certain passages, and this gave sort of a choral effect, which Stan liked, though you needed really good players to play in tune. Stan liked deep heavy reeds, so let me tell you about Gioga— we never called him Bob you know. Stan called him 'Jaegus'— old friendship name I guess.
He got a big, pure baritone sound, always in tune and a very consistent player. Gioga gave a lot of bottom to the sax section— what more could a lead man want! All the charts were different, so he was taking time to adapt.
Needless to say, with confidence and experience. Coop became somebody — and how! But in Stan had eyes for Vido Musso. He'd been after Vido for a long time, but Vido was always working, and this band was not like Dorsey, Goodman or Herman. Stan didn't swingso Vido had his doubts. Then Musso had a change of heart. For many, Vido's florid tenor is the representative solo voice of the "Artistry" band, which would have been unimaginably different without his overwhelming talents.
A1 Anthony is generous in his assessment: "1 had no problems with Vido. He was a powerhouse player, we respected him for it, and he blended well into the section. And Vido wasn't selfish, he gave Coop a chance to find himself, and helped by giving Coop solos on many of the jazz charts.
Cooper was clearly learning from Vido, and Bob's solos on many broadcasts of "Eager Beaver" are so Mussoish it's difficult to tell them apart — very dif- ferent from Coop's later reputation as a leading player of the West Coast cool school. Ray was a triple-edged talent, since he not only shared the lead with Buddy Childers, but was a capable jazz soloist and comedy singer. More genial than the sometimes irascible Buddy, Stan told me Ray played his fair share in shaping the future sound of the Kenton trumpet section.
According to Milt Bernhart, "Ray and Buddy shared the trumpet lead equally. They were such good friends that was never a problem, and the lead parts went back and forth.
Buddy didn't always say things that were diplomatic, he spoke his mind. So sometimes he'd hurt people's feelings, and that's the way he was, so he didn't make it with the rest of the band like Wetzel did. Ray was just a good-natured guy, while Buddy was more of the boss. Buddy gave orders to the rest of the players, and there wasn't a lot of argument; he'd been there longer, and he just kind of slid into the role.
But the rapport between Buddy and Ray was such that many years later Childers would say, "Ray Wetzel was one of nature's noblemen, a won- derful, wonderful guy. A great trumpet player and a Intermission Riff - Vic Lewis - Vic Lewis Jam Sessions Volume 7: 1948-1954 - Plays Stan Kenton - (Vinyl musician.
He was a complete human being. Eddie Safranski got his chance because Max Wayne was suffering from heart problems that compelled him to quit the band. Safranski; whom he'd heard playing in Hal McIntyre's band. Safranski welcomed the opportunity of playing in the more challenging Kenton orchestra, but agreed to the move only after McIntyre gave his personal blessing.
Eddie Safranski proved to be the ideal Kenton bassist: not only a good time-keeper, but an inventive and imaginative player who saw the instrument as a harmonic as well as a rhythmic voice.
His work on 'Concerto to End All Concertos' still sets the standard which all subsequent Kenton bassists aspired to reach. Nevertheless, according to Shelly Manne's biographer Jack Brand, Shelly would voice an opinion that Safranski didn't swing hard enough on the rhythm numbers, one of so many similar dissensions between drummer and bassist over the years it is hard to believe they could all have been coincidental.
Stan's requirements were very different from those of the average jazz leader, and a passion for swinging was not always his top priority when appointing rhythm section players. With the change of musical emphasis came a need for new charts. Gene Roland made one of his perennial reappearances in New York and was rehired by Stan as staff arranger. It was Roland's substantial orches- tration of "Just A-Sittin' and A-Rockin'" recorded on October 30,at Radio Recorders, now being used by Capitol in place of the smaller MacGregor studio that gave June Christy her first chance to prove her jazz pedigree with a superior song.
Little deference is paid to Ducal tradi- tion in this modern-sounding interpretation of the Ellington-Strayhorn standard, and June escapes the O'Day analogy to prove conclusively that hers is a unique vocal styling ideally suited to the Kenton band.
Painted Rhythm is a simple little tune, which would have sounded quite different in the hands of Glenn Miller smoother or Woody Her- man looser. The difference lies, as always, in the rhythmic attack, and also in the incisive brass and the tight "edge" to the band.
These are the characteristics that set Kenton apart, made him separate, and unique. They are the foundations upon which the Kenton Sound is predicated. I would judge this came about by necessity as much as choice. The band had been established around Stan's writing, and "swing" in A New Beginning 39 the accepted sense had never been part of Stan's vocabulary.
It simply wasn't in his genes. Many will disagree, and Johnny Richards has rightly pointed out that there are many different types of "swing. As he became more popular, so by association did they. Kenton's problem lay in finding other arrangers who were prepared to write in his style. It is fascinating to speculate how well the band would have fared, or how it would have developed, had Pete Rugolo never left his native Sicily to settle in California at the delicate age of five.
Cer- tainly the music would have been very different. Pete's talent was genetic, but the form it took was due entirely to his environment, and exposure to American music from an early age. It is also instructive that though he was thoroughly schooled in the clas- sics, and had exceptionally been admitted to the all-female Mills College so that he could study with the French composer Darius Milhaud, Pete's major interest was always in "popular" musical culture. Rugolo had first enjoyed Stan's music during army service, and had even submitted some charts for Kenton's approval based on the band's old, staccato style.
Clinton Roemer had a real insight into the work of the various arrangers, because he copied so many of the post-war charts that were written on the West Coast. He must have been given an assignment at that time, because he returned as a civilian a week or two later with an arrangement of 'Embraceable You' that I copied on November I recall being at the rehearsal for the latter, and the arrangement was something that no one had ever heard the likes of. This was Pete's style from the beginning, and was very different from anything Kenton was writing at the time.
What singer Gene Howard thought of this sudden change of style is not known! Not for Pete a tricky title like "Clever Klein": both men pre- ferred the more sober image reflected by a serious title for their music.
But the rapport between the two went much deeper than their selection of song titles. A strong, enduring bond of friendship and empathy was formed that lasted a life-time, with none of the bad feeling that some- times existed between Kenton and his later arrangers.
I believe the rea- son was two-fold. Foremost was the contrast in their characters. Kenton was headstrong, impulsive, forceful, Rugolo quiet, compliant, unassuming. There was no clash of personality, no ego striving for superiority.
Rugolo admired Ken- ton to the point of veneration, a respect that remained undimmed by the passage of time and changing circumstances, and was always willing to accede to Kenton s requirements. Secondly, the two men were equally committed to their music, a common dedication that surpassed all other issues, and enhanced their mutual respect. Rugolo felt himself fortunate simply to be allowed to write without restrictions something that rarely happened in dance bandsand Kenton was so excited by Rugolo's work he was happy to give Pete that freedom.
As Pete said, "1 could arrange the way 1 wanted to, and even compose originals and know they'd be heard. And Stan never said, 'Don't do it that way,' or 'Do it this way. Roland wasn't pleased at being pigeon-holed, and prob- ably felt excluded by the growing bond between Stan and Pete.
He died at Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital in Manhattan. It breaks industry convention, which is the point: InMcLachlan faced resistance from promoters when she chose Cole as her opening act; the following year, she tested the Lilith Fair concept with four concerts in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Detroit and Vancouverwhich proved it was viable.
Each stop has a different lineup, with 61 artists taking part. It's a huge success, with many of the shows selling out. It returns inbut by this time the female folk singer boom is going bust, as Lilith artists are replaced on the airwaves with the likes of Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera.
He took his nickname from Cubby on television's Mickey Mouse Club. Honing her singing while a member of a Baptist church in New Orleans, Goodman later recorded a Cosimo Matassa-produced demo with a group of teens. Briefly reuniting with Lee inGoodman performed at a series of revival concerts. After providing session vocals for The Rolling Stones and Dr.
John, she retired from music and took a clerical position at the offices of Playboy magazine. After returning to the stage for two years, Goodman retired. Suffering liver failure, he died at University Hospital in New Orleans. Fishermen in an angling contest discovered bones half buried in mud on the riverbank near Avonmouth.
Edwards disappeared in Febhis car was found at a service station at the Seven Bridge a well-known suicide spot. We connect somewhere between here and heaven. She came down for a short visit, I guess, from heaven to visit with me tonight to give me courage and inspiration like she always has. American original bass singer and a founding members of the bombastic soul-funk ensemble The Parliaments, Parliament, and Funkadelic. Born in Sumter, South Carolina. He worked with Roger Troutman and Zapp in the early to mid '80's.
He was also briefly in a late-period line-up of the The Temptations, after the death of bass singer Melvin Franklin and appearing on the album For Lovers Only. Ray left the group when diagnosed with throat cancer. French soprano, later a mezzo-soprano, who had a major international career in opera and on the concert stage between and She excelled in both the French and German repertoire. Her international career was launched in with a critically acclaimed performance of Kundry in Richard Wagner's Parsifal at the Bayreuth Festival.
She soon appeared at most of the major opera houses in the United States and Europe and made a number of appearances in South America as well. She had a long and fruitful association with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, making over appearances at that house between and Regine retired from the stage inafter which she taught singing for many years at her alma mater, the Conservatoire de Paris liver cancer. Don spent nine years as lead trombone with the Ted Heath Jazz Band and toured the USA several times, taking over as leader in after Heath's death.
He also led the trombone section on many of Frank Sinatra's European tours. He later formed his own band and also performed with the Manhattan Sound Big Band, with Alexis Korner and various session musicians in the big band-rock fusion group CCS. In addition, he was a session musician in the early days of Motown Records and played in the house band at Fortune Records. English jazz and blues singer, writer, music critic; born in Liverpool, educated at Stowe School, where he discovered his interest in art, jazz and blues.
He joined the Royal Navy near to the end of the World War 2, where he was almost court-martialled for distributing anarchist literature. After the war while working in an Surrealism art gallery he was offered the job as singer with the Mick Mulligan's Magnolia Jazz Band. The 60s saw George a film critic for The Observer, the writer on the Daily Mail's satirical newspaper strip Flook, illustrated by Trog, and scriptwriter on the satirical film Smashing Time.
The 70's, it's back to jazz with John Chilton's lung cancer. Perry's first chart-topper, it's a startling turnabout from just seven years earlier, when she was a gospel singer recording under her real name: Katy Hudson. She takes some heat from conservative groups, but most listeners consider the lyrics nothing more than a lark, and the song propels Perry to the top tier of pop music.
Luke, who also takes a songwriter credit along with Perry, Max Martin and Cathy Dennis - a song-making dream team. Perry claims the song is based in real life, as it was inspired by a girl crush she had when she was Italian opera singer, generally considered to have been one of the finest basses of the post-war period. His voice was characterised by a deep, warm timbre, and a ringing, vibrant upper register.
On stage, his tall, striking presence and elegance of phrasing made him a natural Don Giovanni, among his many other worldwide roles. February 10th English composer and ethnomusicologist; educated at St George's School, Windsor Castle and Stowe School he started his career as a musician and producer for documentary films. His work is situated at the crossroads of traditional and modern music. Fonce and his brother Larry also started their own company, Sky High Productions.
Walker on guitar, Chuck Rainey on bass and Jerry Peters on piano. In the s, the Mizell brothers retired from full-time production in the s but made reappearances in the s, notably with 4Hero. The year-old won the specialist programme of the year award for his Absolute Radio show, and saw his weekly guest slot named best feature.
Absolute also took the station of the year award. Moving to Australia, he formed in the Polynesian Trio with his brother and sister-in-law, Nuki and Mahora Waaka, in Waaka left the band after a few months following a minor disagreement with Nuki.
After picking up saxophone, she first played in Don Rico's all-girl band at the age of 14, then locally in Newcastle. Later that decade she played with Art Pepper and Peanuts Hucko. She played with pianist Art Thompson in the late s, and was married to him briefly. She toured with Vic Lewis in and led her own group in ; among its members were Derek Humble, Dill Jones, and Bert Courtley; she was married to Courtley from until his death in In the s and s she went into semiretirement to raise her family.
From to she played with Humphrey Lyttelton. He directed various commercial spots and ran his company, Nydrle, Inc. She was famously known as Kak Pah. As a tribute, her name has been immortalised in the Malaysian Book of Records for her sense of giving back to a country that has been brought up to international standards.
The shows came 20 years after the death of lead guitarist Jerry Garcia, who played his last show in the nation's third-largest city in Albarn is appearing in a gap in the tour schedule of his re-formed Britpop band Blur, following the recent release of their first album in more than a decade - The Magic Whip.
She studied under and then married Austrian composer Ernst Krenek there in After completing her LP), Nordenstrom worked as an elementary school teacher until she moved with Krenek to California.
In the following years, she accompanied her husband to visiting professorships in various locations and sometimes collaborated on works. From childhood he showed a great interest in music. His uncle was his first guitar teacher. At age 16 he ran away from home to Carora, where he sought better schooling. That same year he performed his first guitar concert in Europe. There he impressed Segovia greatly with his flawless technique and extensive repertoire.
Three years later, he progressed to become the assistant and substitute to Segovia, and started performing in some of the most prestigious concert halls of Europe. He taught in Rome and performed in concert with his son Senio. During the European winter, he used to return to Venezuela to his native town, La Candelaria. Soon after his arrival he was welcomed by a large group of representative figures of Venezuelan culture, and the Ministry of Education responded by approving a grant for Diaz.
A couple of years later Diaz became not only the disciple of the Segovia but also his assistant and substitute at the Chigiana Academy. Based in Italy, he first toured throughout the European continent to eventually perform on five continents. His guitar arrangements of these songs continue to be performed around the world. His research is conducted from a critical, analytical and musicological point of view. Much of this work is also reflected in his autobiographical work Al divisar el humo de la aldea nativa "On seeing the smoke from the native village".
He pursued his career in Florence, serving as organist of Orsanmichele and at the cathedral of S. Maria del Fiore Wolf Eccard; also attended the University from In he became a bass in the Electoral Kapelle; served as Kantor at the Cathedral church and school in Kneiphof, Konigsberg ; then was Kapellmeister at the Konigsberg court. His extant works comprise Cantiones sacrae harmoniae for 4 to 10 Voices, Item aliquot Magnificat for 5 to 6 Voices Frankfurt am Main,compositions in other collections of the era, and many pieces in MS.
See also G. Teschner, ed. Eccard und J. Stobaeus: Preussische Festlieder for 5 to 8 Voices Leipzig, Beissel had arrived in America with the intention of joining the commune of hermits founded by Johannes Kelpius, but Kelpius had died in Beissel met with one of Kelpius' associates, Conrad Matthaei, who became his principal spiritual confidant. The group around Kelpius had arrived in They settled on a ridge above the Wissahickon Creek.
There they prayed, meditated, watched the stars looking for signs of the coming kingdom of Christ, and they educated children. Some were celibate until death; others married. Celibacy was considered a virtue, but not obligatory.
Each member adopted a new name, and Beissel was called Friedsam, to which the community afterward added the title of Gottrecht. They were influenced by Baptist thought. He devised his own system of musical composition intended to simplify the process by relying on pre-determined sequences of "master notes" and "servant notes" to create harmony.
This was mentioned in Thomas Mann's Doctor Faustus as a precursor to serialism. After Beissel's death and the disruption of the war years of the American Revolution, the utopian community declined in population.
Failing to attract sufficient members, its people assimilated into the general Baptist community. The entire Ephrata community reportedly abstained from meat eating, which Beissel considered spiritually undesirable.
His studies were completed in Since then he engaged in teaching and became known in the music world by many different kinds of pieces for the piano. He studied in Rome, Berlin, and Paris, returning to Brazil in In he was appointed director of the Instituto Nacional de Musica in Rio de Janeiro, remaining only for a few months; he returned to this post inholding it until In he conducted Brazilian music at the International Exposition in Brussels.
In some of his music he introduced thematic material from Brazilian folk music. He was the grandfather of Victor Herbert. In he moved to London and began composing music for a series of comic stage works. To some of them, like the operetta Il Paddy Whack in Italiahe contributed both words and music, for others he merely contributed a few songs.
He also wrote novels, of which Rory O'Moore in its first form a balladand Handy Andy are the best known, and short Irish sketches which, with his songs, he combined into a popular entertainment called Irish Nights or Irish Evenings. With the latter, he toured North America during He joined with Charles Dickens in founding Bentley's Magazine. Irish-born and German-raised, Herbert is best known for his many successful musicals and operettas that premiered on Broadway. As a child he stayed with the Lovers in a musical environment following the death of his father.
He was educated at Highgate School and then studied for the law, but soon gave this up for music. Smart was also skilled as a mechanic, and designed several organs. The oratorio Jacob was created for Glasgow in ; and his opera Bertha was produced with some success at the Haymarket in He was known as a champion of the music of Richard Wagner. He also directed the "Instituto Nacional de Musica. He died in Rio de Janeiro. She studied at the Juilliard School of Music in N.
She became a member of the Chicago Opera Co. She made her first appearance in N. May 10,then appeared with the Metropolitan Opera in N. Luigi Paulino Alfredo Francesco Antonio Balassoni known by the stage name Louie Bellson his own preferred spelling, although he is often seen in sources as Louis Bellsonwas an Italian-American jazz drummer. He was a composer, arranger, bandleader, and jazz educator, and is credited with pioneering the use of two bass drums.
Bellson was an internationally acclaimed artist who performed in most of the major capitals around the world. Bellson and his first wife, the actress and singer Pearl Bailey married —had the second highest number of appearances at the White House only Bob Hope had more. He was a vice president at Remo, a drum company. Louie was also good friends with the cymbal manufacturer Armand Zildjian. Louie Bellson was born in Rock Falls, Illinois, in and started playing drums at three years of age.
At age 15, he pioneered the double-bass drum set-up. His detailed sketch earned him an 'A' in his high school art class. At age 17, he triumphed over 40, drummers to win the Slingerland National Gene Krupa contest. They were my influences. All three of us realized what Jo Jones did and it influenced a lot of us. We all three looked to Jo as the 'Papa' who really did it. Gene helped bring the drums to the foreground as a solo instrument. Buddy was a great natural player.
But we also have to look back at Chick Webb's contributions, too. Bellson was 24 and a veteran of a U. In he married Pearl Bailey, and he left Ellington to be her musical director. They adopted a little boy, Tony, in the mids. And the couple adopted a little girl, Dee Dee J.
Bellson, born April 20, After Pearl Bailey's death inhe married his second wife, Francine in September The union lasted until his death in Later in the s and s, he performed with Jazz at the Philharmonic or J.
Over the years, Bellson took several bandleader's holidays to play under the direction of other leaders or to lead someone else's band. Ellington called these concerts "the most important thing I have ever done.
In Bellson recorded an album entitled 'Repercussion' in which he played alongside his great friend, the British drummer and percussionist, Eric Delaney. This special tribute show also featured legendary British session and big band drummer, Kenny Clare, as well as Buddy Rich. The orchestra for the occasion was made up of top musicians and led by Bobby Lamb and Ray Premru.
The concert was released on vinyl LP in Re-released in on the Vocalion label. Throughout the s and s he worked with territory bands like the Unifour Jazz Ensemble. Bellson proudly accepted. He also recorded extensively and led his own bands occasionally maintaining separate bands on each coast. He was equally effective as a big band drummer and as a small group drummer. In MayFrancine Bellson fascinated jazz fans when she told The Jazz Joy and Roy syndicated radio show, "I like to call Sacred 'how The Master used two maestros,'" adding, "When Ellington did his sacred concert back in with Louie on drums, he told Louie that the sacred concerts were based on 'in-the-beginning,' the first three words of the bible.
Bellson, who is affectionately called "The Indomitable Mrs. B" by the many jazz-radio fans, recalled how Ellington explained to Louie that "in the beginning there was lightning and thunder and that's you! Both Ellington and Louie, says Mrs. Bellson, were deeply religious. The big band was manned by the members of Clark Terry's Big Band.
The resultant album, Louie and Clark Expedition 2 was released in January Bellson led his own orchestra almost steadily for more than forty years. His last band was called the Big Band Explosion. On February 14,Bellson died at age 84 from complications of a broken hip in December and Parkinson's disease.
He is buried next to his father in Riverside Cemetery in Moline, Illinois. Bellson was also a poet and a lyricist. His only Broadway venture, Portofinowas a resounding flop that closed after three performances. As an author, he published more than a dozen books on drums and percussion. He was at work with his biographer on a book chronicling his career and bearing the same name as one of his compositions — "Skin Deep".
In addition, "The London Suite" recorded on his album Louie in London was performed at the Hollywood Pilgrimage Bowl before a record-breaking audience.
The three-part work includes a choral section in which a voice choir sings lyrics penned by Bellson. Bellson was known throughout his career to conduct drum and band clinics at high schools, colleges and music stores.
Bellson maintained a tight schedule of clinics and performances of both big bands and small bands in colleges, clubs and concert halls. In between, he continued to record and compose, resulting in more than albums and more than compositions. He also created new drum technology for Remo, Inc.
As ofamong other performing activities, Bellson had visited his home town of Rock Falls, Illinois every July for Louie Bellson Heritage Days, a weekend in his honor close to his July 6 birthday, with receptions, music clinics and other performances by Bellson. At the event celebrating his 80th birthday, Bellson said, "I'm not that old; I'm 40 in this leg, and 40 in the other leg.
Among Bellson's numerous accolades, he had been voted into the Halls of Fame for both Modern Drummer magazine, inand the Percussive Arts Society, in Yale University named him a Duke Ellington Fellow in He received an honorary Doctorate from Northern Illinois University in A combination of full symphony orchestra, big-band ensemble and voice choir, "Tomus" had been a collaboration of music by Bellson and lyrics by his late wife, Pearl Bailey. Bellson was a six-time Grammy Award nominee.
As one of three recipients, Bellson was lauded by NEA chair Jane Alexander who said, "These colossal talents have helped write the history of jazz in America. Blinded in one eye after a botched operation in his childhood, Haley became a social outcast in his teens. Drawn to the music of singing cowboys, Haley was given a guitar at age 13 and taught to play by his father.
Dropping out of school at 15, Haley was hired as a singer in a local band. Getting a break inHaley was hired as a replacement yodeller in The Downhomersa popular hillbilly group with its own national radio show.
Haley briefly rejoined the group inappearing on a pair of their records. First exposed to jazz and blues while at a stop in Kansas City, Haley would contemplate infusing the music into his repertoire. Disbanding the group, Haley found work as a radio deejay, eventually landing the position of programme director at WPWA in Chester, Pennsylvania. Topping the pop charts and launching the rock era, the song catapulted Haley to stardom on both sides of the Atlantic.
With much of his wealth squandered by his manager, the desperate Haley signed with Warner Brothers in Unable to pay his back taxes, he was forced to flee the US in the Sixties. Settling his IRS bill inHaley joined the oldies circuit and was always assured of a generous welcome in the UK. Haley was devastated by the death of his long-term sax player Rudy Pompilli inand never recovered. He died at his home in Harlington, Texas, with a bottle in his hand. She has also appeared as a guest on several talk shows and as a panelist on numerous game shows.
In the late s, she had hosted her own talk show, Della, which ran for episodes. She achieved continuing success in the television religious fantasy drama Touched by an Angel —in which Reese played the leading role of Tess.
Her mother also had several children before Reese's birth, none of whom lived with her; hence, Reese grew up as an only child. At six years old, Reese began singing in church. From this experience, she became an avid gospel singer. On weekends in the s, she and her mother would go to the movies independently to watch the likes of Joan Crawford, Bette Davis, and Lena Horne portray glamorous lives on screen.
Afterwards, Reese would act out the scenes from the films. Inshe began her career directing the young people's choir, after she had nurtured acting plus her obvious musical talent.
She was often chosen, on radio, as a regular singer. At the age of 13, she was hired to sing with Mahalia Jackson's gospel group. She also continued with her touring with Jackson. With higher grades, she was the first in her family to graduate from high school inat only However, due in part to the death of her mother, and her father's serious illness, Reese had to interrupt her schooling at Wayne State University to help support her family.
Faithful to the memory of her mother, Deloreese also moved out of her father's house when she disapproved of him taking up with a new girlfriend. She then took on odd jobs, such as truck driver, dental receptionist, and even elevator operator, after Reese remained there for eight weeks. Although her roots were in gospel music, she now was being exposed to and influenced by such famous jazz artists as Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan and Billie Holiday.
Inshe signed a recording contract with Jubilee Records, for which she recorded six albums. Later that year, she also joined the Hawkins Orchestra. The songs were later included on the album And That Reminds Me It became a Top Twenty Pop hit and a million-seller record. It sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA.
Reese received a Grammy nomination for her album, Della and then released a successful follow-up single called "Not One Minute More" Reese recorded regularly throughout the s, releasing singles and several albums. Two of the most significant were The Classic Della and Waltz with Me, Dellawhich broadened her fan base internationally.
She also performed in Las Vegas Nevada for nine years and toured across the country. Reese continued to record albums in the following decades, receiving two more Grammy nominations in the gospel category for the album Della Reese and Brilliance and for the live recorded album, My Soul Feels Better Right Now Her first attempt at television stardom was a talk show series, Della, which was cancelled after episodes June 9, — March 13, She appeared in several TV movies and miniseries, was a regular on Chico and the Man and played the mother of B.
Reese appeared as a panelist on several episodes of the popular television game show Match Game. She has also been featured by proxy on the McElroy family Dungeons and Dragons podcast, The Adventure Zone, after a magical, kickass deity was named after her. Reese was widely seen as a key component of the show's success. In numerous interviews, there was an on-and off-screen chemistry between both Reese and Downey.
The show often featured a climactic monologue delivered by the angel Monica in which she reveals herself as an angel to a human with the words: "I am an angel sent by God to tell you that He loves you. Reese also sang the show's theme song, "Walk With You," and was featured prominently on the soundtrack album produced in conjunction with the show. The show had a rocky start, low ratings and was cancelled 11 episodes into the first season.
However, with the help of a massive letter-writing campaign, the show was resuscitated the following season and became a huge ratings winner for the next seven seasons. At the beginning of the fourth season inReese threatened to leave the show because she was making less than her co-stars; CBS ended up raising her salary. Touched by an Angel was cancelled inbut it continued re-running heavily in syndication and on The Hallmark Channel.
She's very loving. She can be a little gruff at times, but she's always adoring and adorable. I lost my mother when I was very young, and during my whole adolescence and into my twenties, I'd been looking for a mother figure, and I really think I can say with absolute truth and sincerity that I feel that I finally found her in Della Reese.
To know Della is to know that she loves God. Reese's father, Richard Early, died ten years later. Reese had an adoptive daughter whom she acquired from a family member unable to care for her, named Deloreese Daniels Owens, in Owens died on March 14, It was never released whether she died from suicide or from implications stemming from pituitary disease. It makes it harder because you don't understand what happened.
It seemed so strange and hard to explain. It still is, to be honest. This marriage either ended in divorce or was annulled on the basis that Gray's previous divorce was invalid. Inshe married Franklin Thomas Lett, Jr. InReese announced on Larry King Live that she had been diagnosed with type-2 diabetes, but didn't come as a surprise considering what she ate and what her diet consisted of, as well as her weight.
She loved cake, especially chocolate. She became a spokeswoman for the American Diabetes Association, traveling around the United States to raise awareness about this disorder. InReese was honored by Oprah Winfrey at her Legends Ball ceremony, along with 25 other black women. Johnnie Colemon, a close friend of Rev. They currently meet at First Lutheran Church www. In her ministerial work, she is known as the Rev. Della Reese Lett. She also admitted about her suffering from diabetes, "My life is at stake," she said.
Prior to attending the ceremony to honor her former co-star and long-term friend, Roma Downey, who herself, received a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, years after her mentor, she also admitted after collapsing on the set of Touched by an Angel incontributed to her diabetes, after years of eating her old, nightly snacks of fried chicken, potato chips, ice cream, candy bars and cola, who was very frustrated because she didn't do anything to prevent her health, when she did the best she could to control her disease, "With diet, exercise and medication, I took control of my diabetes," she stated.
Ervin Jr. Recorded a popular version of "Swinging on a Star" with Little Eva. As a conductor, he was also a notable champion and interpreter of the music of Jean Sibelius. His music drew on the folk legends of the Finnish people. He founded the first permanent orchestra in Finland: the Helsinki Orchestral Society later to become the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra, Finland's national orchestra.
Kajanus led the Helsinki Philharmonic for 50 years, and among the milestones of that history was the first performance in Finland of Beethoven's Symphony No. He was also the founder of the Nordic Music Festival in He was considered an authority on the interpretation of Sibelius's music, and he and Sibelius were close friends; but this was compromised in when Sibelius was appointed to a university post for which Kajanus was himself a candidate.
Kajanus appealed, and the decision was overturned. But they reconciled for the orchestra's tour of Europe inIntermission Riff - Vic Lewis - Vic Lewis Jam Sessions Volume 7: 1948-1954 - Plays Stan Kenton - (Vinyl, where they appeared at the Exposition Universelle at the invitation of the French government. Kullervo, Sibelius's epic masterpiece, was written in the wake of Kajanus' symphonic poem Aino although Sibelius denied any exertion of influence of this piece over his own work.
Additionally, as a conductor, Kajanus was responsible for commissioning one of Sibelius' most popular and enduring works, En Saga, following the success of Kullervo. Pohjola's Daughter was dedicated to Kajanus. When Kajanus took the Helsinki Orchestra on a tour of Europe in both he and Sibelius conducted, including what proved to be the first performances of Sibelius's music outside of Finland. This ensured the spread of the young composer's reputation far beyond the borders of his homeland, the first Finnish composer to receive such attention.
They were recorded in the early s, with the London Symphony Orchestra. The relationship between Kajanus and Sibelius was such that his interpretations of the composer's music are usually regarded as authentic. In Kajanus recorded Symphonies Nos. This was a massive recording project for the work of a living composer, and the recordings have been considered definitive for many years and are regarded as necessary listening in the study of Sibelius.
Only his death in Julyat the age of 76, prevented Kajanus from recording all of Sibelius' works. After passing through two labels, the group was signed by ABC-Paramount. She died in suburban Cleveland. Taking piano lessons as a young child, McCoy performed classical music around the city with his violinist brother.
But continuing his foray into the music field, he worked as a songwriter for Columbia Records, and as a producer at Sceptor where he gained much of his experience working with The Shirelles.
Returning to Columbia, McCoy was signed to the label by Mitch Miller; recording the album Nighttime is a Lonely Time in collaboration with Miller, the project was too sophisticated for the pop market.
Operating several music production companies by the late Sixties, McCoy had also formed Whitehouse Productions in a partnership with Joe Cobb. Active in other areas of entertainment, McCoy hit the stage in the film musical Sextette After suffering a heart attack in late June at his Englewood, New Jersey, home, he died a week later at Englewood Hospital.
Krikorian American singer is born. After establishing a reputation in Europe as a pianist, he came to America in where he bccame a much-rcspectcd soloist and tcachcr of piano, composition, and orchestration. Frederick Jacobi and Jerome Kern were two of his pupils. The Septet for piano, horn, string quartet, and contralto and a Piano Quintet were once widely performed. Gallico composed a three-act lyric opera.
Harlequin, produced in The writer Paul Gallico was his son. Paolo Gallico, a local pianist of excellent repute, gave a recital yesterday afternoon at Mendelssohn Hall. His programme consisted of the following numbers: Weber's sonata, opus 24; Beethoven's A major variations; Schumann's "Papillons," a Schumann caprice on a Paganini theme; two preludes, and the fantasia, opus 49, of Chopin; Louis Saar's ballade, opus 18, No.
Lennon was impressed, and even more so when McCartney showed Lennon and Eric Griffiths how to tune their guitars, something they'd been paying someone else to do for them. The group was conceived in by Justin Sullivan a. Slade The Leveller and writer Joolz Denby as an anti-establishment, post-punk venture. Following a respite during the mid Nineties, NMA re-formed in Following surgery in to remove a brain tumour, Heaton left the group and opened a recording studio in Bradford.
Heaton would later issue solo material under the moniker Gardeners Of Eden. He died after collapsing at his recording studio. American influential jazz bassist, born in Irvington, New Jersey, and perhaps best known for his work with the Bill Evans Trio. He entered college to study music but left during the early weeks of his sophomore year, to joined Buddy Morrow and his big band, before relocating to Los Angeles. He quickly found work and became known as one of the best of the young bassists.
His tragic death came two days after accompanying Stan Getz at the Newport Jazz Festival and ten days after recording two live albums with the Bill Evans Trio, Sunday at the Village Vanguard and Waltz for Debby, albums considered among the finest live jazz recordings died in an automobile accident in Flint, New York on U.
The album spent a total of 33 weeks on the chart. A badly damaged home video recording recovered by the British Film Institute of this show was given a public screening in London on 9th January at an event called "Missing Believed Wiped" devoted to recovered TV shows. It was the first time any footage was seen of the performance since its original broadcast.
Louis Armstrong nicknamed Satchmo, Satch or Pops, was an American trumpeter, composer, singer and occasional actor who was one of the most influential figures in jazz. His career spanned five decades, from the s to the s, and different eras in jazz.
Coming to prominence in the s as an "inventive" trumpet and cornet player, Armstrong was a foundational influence in jazz, shifting the focus of the music from collective improvisation to solo performance. With his instantly recognizable gravelly voice, Armstrong was also an influential singer, demonstrating great dexterity as an improviser, bending the lyrics and melody of a song for expressive purposes.
He was also skilled at scat singing. Armstrong was one of the first truly popular African-American entertainers to "cross over", whose skin color was secondary to his music in an America that was extremely racially divided.
He rarely publicly politicized his race, often to the dismay of fellow African Americans, but took a well-publicized stand for desegregation in the Little Rock crisis. His artistry and personality allowed him socially acceptable access to the upper echelons of American society which were highly restricted for black men of his era. Although he died init was not until the mids that his true birth date, August 4,was discovered by the researcher Tad Jones through the examination of baptismal records.
He spent his youth in poverty, in a rough neighborhood known as the Battlefield, which was part of the Storyville legal prostitution district. His father, William Armstrong —abandoned the family when Louis was an infant and took up with another woman.
His mother, Mary "Mayann" Albert —then left Louis and his younger sister, Beatrice Armstrong Collins —in the care of his grandmother, Josephine Armstrong, and at times his uncle Isaac. At five, he moved back to live with his mother, her relatives and a parade of "stepfathers". He brought in some money by selling newspapers, delivering coal, singing on the streets at night, and also by finding discarded food and selling it to restaurants, but it was not enough to keep his mother from prostitution.
He hung out in dance halls close to home, where he observed everything from licentious dancing to the quadrille. For extra money he also hauled coal to Storyville, and listened to the bands playing in the brothels and dance halls, especially Pete Lala's, where Joe "King" Oliver performed as well as other famous musicians who would drop in to jam.
He also started to get into trouble. Armstrong hardly looked back at his youth as the worst of times but drew inspiration from it instead: "Every time I close my eyes blowing that trumpet of mine—I look right in the heart of good old New Orleans It has given me something to live for. They took him in and treated him like family; knowing he lived without a father, they fed and nurtured him. In it he described his discovery that this family was also subject to discrimination by "other white folks" who felt that they were better than Jews: "I was only seven years old but I could easily see the ungodly treatment that the White Folks were handing the poor Jewish family whom I worked for.
Professor Peter Davis who frequently appeared at the home at the request of its administrator, Captain Joseph Jones instilled discipline in and provided musical training to the otherwise self-taught Armstrong. Eventually, Davis made Armstrong the band leader. The home band played around New Orleans and the thirteen-year-old Louis began to draw attention by his cornet playing, starting him on a musical career.
At fourteen he was released from the home, living again with his father and new stepmother, Gertrude, and then back with his mother and thus back to the streets and their temptations. Armstrong got his first dance hall job at Henry Ponce's, where Black Benny became his protector and guide. He hauled coal by day and played his cornet at night. Later, he played in brass bands and riverboats of New Orleans, and began traveling with the well-regarded band of Fate Marable, which toured on a steamboat up and down the Mississippi River.
He described his time with Marable as "going to the University," since it gave him a much wider experience working with written arrangements. He also became second trumpet for the Tuxedo Brass Band. At twenty, he could read music and started to be featured in extended trumpet solos, one of the first jazz men to do this, injecting his own personality and style into his solo turns.
He had learned how to create a unique sound and also started using singing and patter in his performances. InArmstrong joined the exodus to Chicago, where he had been invited by his mentor, Joe "King" Oliver, to join his Creole Jazz Band and where he could make a sufficient income so that he no longer needed to supplement his music with day labor jobs.
It was a boom time in Chicago and though race relations were poor, the city was teeming with jobs available for black people, who were making good wages in factories and had plenty to spend on entertainment. Armstrong lived luxuriously in Chicago, in his own apartment with his own private bath his first. Excited as he was to be in Chicago, he began his career-long pastime of writing nostalgic letters to friends in New Orleans. Unusually, Armstrong could blow two hundred high Cs in a row.
As his reputation grew, he was challenged to instrumental "cutting contests" by hornmen trying to displace him. Armstrong made his first recordings on the Gennett and Okeh labels jazz records were starting to boom across the countryincluding taking some solos and breaks, while playing second cornet in Oliver's band in At this time, he met Hoagy Carmichael with whom he would collaborate later who was introduced by friend Bix Beiderbecke, who now had his own Chicago band.
Lil had her husband play classical music in church concerts to broaden his skill and improve his solo play and she prodded him into wearing more stylish attire to make him look sharp and to better offset his growing girth.
Lil's influence eventually undermined Armstrong's relationship with his mentor, especially concerning his salary and additional moneys that Oliver held back from Armstrong and other band members. Armstrong and Oliver parted amicably in Armstrong switched to the trumpet to blend in better with the other musicians in his section.
His influence upon Henderson's tenor sax soloist, Coleman Hawkins, can be judged by listening to the records made by the band during this period. The other members quickly took up Armstrong's emotional, expressive pulse. Soon his act included singing and telling tales of New Orleans characters, especially preachers. The Henderson Orchestra was playing in prominent venues for white-only patrons, including the famed Roseland Ballroom, featuring the arrangements of Don Redman.
Duke Ellington's orchestra would go to Roseland to catch Armstrong's performances and young horn men around town tried in vain to outplay him, splitting their lips in their attempts. He was content in New York but later would concede that she was right and that the Henderson Orchestra was limiting his artistic growth.
In publicity, much to his chagrin, she billed him as "the World's Greatest Trumpet Player". At first, he was actually a member of the Lil Hardin Armstrong Band and working for his wife. He began recording under his own name for Okeh with his famous Hot Five and Hot Seven groups, producing hits such as "Potato Head Blues", "Muggles" a slang term for marijuana cigarettes: Armstrong used marijuana daily for much of his lifeand "West End Blues", the music of which set the standard and the agenda for jazz for many years to come.
Cyr banjowife Lil on piano, and usually no drummer. Armstrong's band leading style was easygoing, as St. Cyr noted, "One felt so relaxed working with him, and he was very broad-minded His recordings soon after with pianist Earl "Fatha" Hines most famously their "Weather Bird" duet and Armstrong's trumpet introduction to and solo in "West End Blues" remain some of the most famous and influential improvisations in jazz history.
Armstrong was now free to develop his personal style as he wished, which included a heavy dose of effervescent jive, such as "whip that thing, Miss Lil" and "Mr. Johnny Dodds, Aw, do that clarinet, boy! They furnished music for silent movies and live shows, including jazz versions of classical music, such as "Madame Butterfly", which gave Armstrong experience with longer forms of music and with hosting before a large audience. He began to scat sing improvised vocal jazz using nonsensical words and was among the first to record it, on the Hot Five recording "Heebie Jeebies" in The recording was so popular that the group became the most famous jazz band in the United States, even though they had not performed live to any great extent.
Young musicians across the country, black or white, were turned on by Armstrong's new type of jazz. Hines and Armstrong became fast friends and successful collaborators. He also made a cameo appearance as a vocalist, regularly stealing the show with his rendition of "Ain't Misbehavin'", his version of the song becoming his biggest selling record to date.
Armstrong also had considerable success with vocal recordings, including versions of famous songs composed by his old friend Hoagy Carmichael. His s recordings took full advantage of the new RCA ribbon microphone, introduced inwhich imparted a characteristic warmth to vocals and immediately became an intrinsic part of the 'crooning' sound of artists like Bing Crosby. Armstrong's famous interpretation of Carmichael's "Stardust" became one of the most successful versions of this song ever recorded, showcasing Armstrong's unique vocal sound and style and his innovative approach to singing songs that had already become standards.
The song begins with a brief trumpet solo, then the main melody is introduced by sobbing horns, memorably punctuated by Armstrong's growling interjections at the end of each bar: "Yeah! In the second stanza he breaks into an almost fully improvised melody, which then evolves into a classic passage of Armstrong "scat singing".
The uniquely gravelly coloration of his voice became a musical archetype that was much imitated and endlessly impersonated. His scat singing style was enriched by his matchless experience as a trumpet soloist. His resonant, velvety lower-register tone and bubbling cadences on sides such as "Lazy River" exerted a huge influence on younger white singers such as Bing Crosby. The Cotton Club closed in after a long downward spiral, and many musicians stopped playing altogether as club dates evaporated.
Bix Beiderbecke died and Fletcher Henderson's band broke up. King Oliver made a few records but otherwise struggled. The band drew the Hollywood crowd, which could still afford a lavish night life, while radio broadcasts from the club connected with younger audiences at home.
Bing Crosby and many other celebrities were regulars at the club. InArmstrong appeared in his first movie, Ex-Flame and was also convicted of marijuana possession but received a suspended sentence. He returned to Chicago in late and played in bands more in the Guy Lombardo vein and he recorded more standards. When the mob insisted that he get out of town, Armstrong visited New Orleans, had a hero's welcome and saw old friends. He sponsored a local baseball team known as "Armstrong's Secret Nine" and had a cigar named after him.
But soon he was on the road again and after a tour across the country shadowed by the mob, Armstrong decided to go to Europe to escape. His agent Johnny Collins's erratic behavior and his own spending ways left Armstrong short of cash.
Breach of contract violations plagued him. Finally, he hired Joe Glaser as his new manager, a tough mob-connected wheeler-dealer, who began to straighten out his legal mess, his mob troubles, and his debts. Armstrong also began to experience problems with his fingers and lips, which were aggravated by his unorthodox playing style. As a result, he branched out, developing his vocal style and making his first theatrical appearances. He appeared in movies again, including Crosby's hit Pennies from Heaven.
Although subject to the vicissitudes of Tin Pan Alley and the gangster-ridden music business, as well as anti-black prejudice, he continued to develop his playing.
Bookings for big bands tapered off during the s due to changes in public tastes: ballrooms closed, and there was competition from television and from other types of music becoming more popular than big band music. It became impossible under such circumstances to support and finance a piece touring band. The new group was announced at the opening of Billy Berg's Supper Club.
During this period, Armstrong made many recordings and appeared in over thirty films. He was the first jazz musician to appear on the cover of Time magazine, on February 21, When it was released, the disc garnered worldwide sales.
However, a growing generation gap became apparent between him and the young jazz musicians who emerged in the postwar era such as Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, and Sonny Rollins. The postwar generation regarded their music as abstract art and considered Armstrong's vaudevillian style, half-musician and half-stage entertainer, outmoded and Uncle Tomism, ".
Armstrong's version remained on the Hot for 22 weeks, longer than any other record produced that year, and went to No. In the process, he dislodged the Beatles from the No.
Armstrong made his last recorded trumpet performances on his album Disney Songs the Satchmo Way. Byhe was approaching 70 and his health finally began to give out. He suffered heart and kidney ailments that forced him to stop touring. Armstrong did not perform publicly at all in and spent most of the year recuperating at home.
Meanwhile, his longtime manager Joe Glaser died. By the summer ofArmstrong's doctors pronounced him fit enough to resume live performances. He embarked on another world tour, but a heart attack forced him to take a break for two months. Musicians and close friends usually called him "Pops. That said, Armstrong was registered as "Lewie" for the U. On various live records he's called "Louie" on stage, such as on the "Can Anyone Explain? They adopted a 3-year-old boy, Clarence Armstrong, whose mother, Louis' cousin Flora, died soon after giving birth.
Clarence Armstrong was mentally disabled the result of a head injury at an early age and Louis would spend the rest of his life taking care of him. Louis' marriage to Parker failed quickly and they separated in His second wife was instrumental in developing his career, but in the late s Hardin and Louis grew apart. They separated in and divorced inafter which Louis married longtime girlfriend Alpha Smith.
His marriage to his third wife lasted four years, and they divorced in Louis then married Lucille Wilson in Octobera singer at the Cotton Club, to whom he was married until his death in His autobiography vexed some biographers and historians, as he had a habit of telling tales, particularly of his early childhood when he was less scrutinized, and his embellishments of his history often lack consistency.
He was beloved by an American public that gave even the greatest African American performers little access beyond their public celebrity, and he was able to live a private life of access and privilege afforded to few other African Americans during that era. However, he did criticize President Eisenhower for not acting forcefully enough on civil rights.
During his s European tour, he suffered an ulceration so severe that he had to stop playing entirely for a year. Eventually he took to using salves and creams on his lips and also cutting off scar tissue with a razor blade. By the s, he was an official spokesman for Ansatz-Creme Lip Salve.
Like many things in Armstrong's life, which was filled with colorful stories both real and imagined, many of his own telling, the nickname has many possible origins.
Someone dubbed him "satchel mouth" for his mouth acting as a satchel. Another tale is that because of his large mouth, he was nicknamed "satchel mouth" which became shortened to Satchmo. The nickname was soon turned on Armstrong himself. It was used as the title of a biography of Armstrong by Terry Teachout. As his fame grew, so did his access to the finer things in life usually denied to African-Americans, even famous ones. His renown was such that he dined in reputable restaurants and stayed in hotels usually exclusively for whites.
It was a power and privilege that he enjoyed, although he was very careful not to flaunt it with fellow performers of color, and privately, he shared what access that he could with friends and fellow musicians.
Billie Holiday countered, however, "Of course Pops toms, but he toms from the heart. In the New Orleans African-American community it is an honored role as the head of leading black Carnival Krewe, but bewildering or offensive to outsiders with their traditional costume of grass-skirts and blackface makeup satirizing southern white attitudes.
The few exceptions made it more effective when he did speak out. Armstrong's criticism of President Eisenhower, calling him "two-faced" and "gutless" because of his inaction during the conflict over school desegregation in Little Rock, Arkansas in made national news. As a protest, Armstrong canceled a planned tour of the Soviet Union on behalf of the State Department saying: "The way they're treating my people in the South, the government can go to hell" and that he could not represent his government abroad when it was in conflict with its own people.
Armstrong wore the Star of David in honor of the Karnofsky family, who took him in as a child and lent him the money to buy his first cornet. Armstrong seems to have been tolerant towards various religions, but also found humor in them.
He used laxatives to control his weight, a practice he advocated both to acquaintances and in the diet plans he published under the title Lose Weight the Satchmo Way. Armstrong's laxative of preference in his younger days was Pluto Water, but he then became an enthusiastic convert when he discovered the herbal remedy Swiss Kriss.
Intro - Beats By Brods* - Desperados Music (CDr, Album), Bulletproof Blues - Apollo 440 - Dude Descending A Staircase (CD, Album), Muskrat Ramble - Various - Leaders Of Jazz (Vinyl, LP), Zoo Of Montreal - Various - Alternative Trippin vol. 2 (CD, Album), Bicycle Tricycle, Time Passages - Al Stewart - Time Passages (Vinyl, LP, Album), Black Masses, In Due AllAlba - Nico Fidenco - Emotions Sound (Vinyl, LP), Familiar Faces - Derlee - Mellow Morning (Dusted Wax Edition) (EP) (File, MP3)