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Paladino Music PMR Genuin GEN Capriccio Records C Erato Accentus ACC Alba ABCD Glossa GCD Hyperion CDA Harmonia Mundi HMX Bach, Beethoven, Rzewski Igor Levit. Azica Records ACD Bach: Goldberg Variationen Andreas Staier. Harmonia Mundi HMU Bach: Goldberg Variations Lars Vogt. Ondine ODE Bach's output was lost in the WWII destruction of the Staatliches Institut fr Musikforschung in Berlin, where the scores had been on deposit since Bach's work shows him to have been a transitional figure in the mold of his half-brother C.
Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach Johannand Georg Philipp Telemann, with some works in the style of the high Baroque, some in a galant idiom, and still others which combine elements of the two, along with traits of the nascent classical style.
Notes  New Grove, p  Sonata first published along with other works by his brother, C. Bach, in Musikalisches Vielerley, pages - to A transcribed version was later published in D Major and later again in A Major. Both revised versions are available. Dates based on early copies by Johann Friedrich Peter.
Madison, Wis. Preface page xi. Born in Weimar, he attended the Thomasschule in Leipzig, his father providing for his musical formation. In contrast to his elder brothers Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel he did not get the opportunity to study at the university after finishing school.
Instead, he competed for a post as musician. Johann Gottfried Bernhard first served as organist at the Marienkirche in Mhlhausen in and, after leaving the town charged with debts, managed with the support of his father to find a new engagement as organist at the Jakobikirche in Sangerhausen. Inhe secretly abandoned a career in music in order to study Law in Jena. There he died prematurely at Album) age of twenty-four.
Whether Gottfried Bernhard was also a composer as his brothers were is unknown. Bach is thought to have been born in Eisenach. After his studies at the Latin school in Eisenach, he became oboist in the municipal band. During his stay in Constantinople, he studied flute under Pierre-Gabriel Buffardin. From tohe served as flutist in the court of the Stockholm capelle.
He died childless in in Stockholm and is buried there. Johann Jacob played oboe, flute and possibly violin. He probably composed the Sonata in C minor under the pseudonym Signor Bach. Sources     Schonberg, Harold C. The Lives of The Great Composers. Bach's humorous pieces in H. For other references, see list of references on the Spanish Wikipedia article on es:Johann Jacob Bach. He was born in Thal.
At the age of 22 he moved to Meiningen eventually being appointed cantor there, and later Kapellmeister. He wrote a large amount of music and regularly oversaw performances, both at Meiningen and neighbouring courts. He was a second cousin of Johann Sebastian Bach, who made copies of several of his cantatas and performed them at Leipzig. Bach's first wife Maria Barbara Bach.
InJohann Michael became the organist and town clerk of Gehren, where he lived until his death. Works His most-performed work is the small chorale prelude for organ, In Dulci Jubilo, which for many years was attributed to J. It was ascribed the catalog number BWV His other most important works include cantatas Ach, bleib bei uns, Herr Jesu Christ for choir, strings and continuoLiebster Jesu, hr mein Flehen for soprano, alto, two tenors, bass, strings and continuoand Ach, wie sehnlich wart' ich der Zeit also for soprano, strings, and continuo.
In addition to composing music, J. Bach made musical instruments, including harpsichords. He was educated at the University of Jena, where he later became organist.
He was probably born at Eisenach, where his father was employed as a musician, attended the Eisenach Latin school untiland was a student of the Jena city organist J. Knpfer, a son of Sebastian Knpfer; after an Italian sojourn inhe became organist at the Stadtkirche and the Kollegiatkirche in Jena. He was influenced by Antonio Lotti. He later joined the Danish army. He then returned to Jena where he lived for the rest of his life.
Few of his compositions survive. He was also a maker of harpsichords and organs. Surviving pieces include a mass, two chorale preludes on Nun freut euch lieben Christen g'mein and a Singspiel Der jenaische Wein- und Bierrufer, this in the form of a quodlibet on Jena student traditions.
Bach, Johann Nikolaus. He was the father of the so-called "Erfurt line" of Bach family musicians. All three were composers.
He spent seven years studying under Johann Christoph Hoffmann, a stadtpfeifer in Suhl. From he served as organist at St. Johannis church in Schweinfurt, and was later organist at Suhl. In he became town musician and director of the Raths-Musikanten in Erfurt, and was organist at the town's Predigerkirche from His first wife, Barbara Hoffman a daughter of his teacherdied half an hour after bearing a stillborn son in Following this he married Hedwig Lmmerhirt, the daughter of a town councilman in Erfurt.
Bach's works included two motets, Unser Leben ist ein Schatten and Sei nun wieder zufrieden, and an aria, Weint nicht um meinen Tod. She was also his second cousin, the daughter of Johann Michael Bach. Blasius Church, a position he assumed in midsummer That August, he received an inheritance of 50 gulden more than half his annual salary from his maternal uncle, Tobias Lmmerhirt.
This facilitated the marriage which occurred on October 17 at Dornheim, a village near Arnstadt, her hometown and his previous post. Little is known of her life or their marriage, except that they were contented in their marriage.
According to her second surviving son, Carl Philipp Emanuel, Maria Barbara's death in came quickly and unexpectedly: J. Bach was accompanying his employer, the Duke of Kthen, as the duke went to take the waters at the Carlsbad spa the Duke brought his musicians along to provide him with entertainment. When he left, Maria Barbara was in normal health; when he returned he learned that she had died and been buried on July 7.
The cause of her death is unknown, but speculations include infectious disease or complications from pregnancy. Anna Magdalena Wilcke became Johann's second wife 17 months after Maria Barbara's death and raised her children along with her own. Her most famous son was Johann Sebastian Bach. Maria Elisabeth was a daughter of Valentin Lammerhirt, a furrier and town councilor in Erfurt. Notes  Emery, Walther, and Wolff, Christoph.
Johann Sebastian Bach. Childhood", Grove Music Online, ed. Macy accessed 12 Decembergrovemusic. Despite his acknowledged genius as an organist, improviser and composer, his income and employment were unstable and he died in poverty. Biography Wilhelm Friedemann hereafter Friedemann was born in Weimar, where his father was employed as organist and chamber musician to the Album) of Saxe-Weimar.
Bach supervised Friedemann's musical education and career with great attention. The graded course of keyboard studies and composition that J. The authenticity of this portrait Friedemann Bachwith entries by both father and son. At the age of 16 he went to Merseburg to learn the violin with his teacher Johann Gottlieb Graun.
In addition to his musical training, Friedemann received formal schooling beginning in Weimar. When J. Bach took the post of Cantor of the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig inhe enrolled Friedemann in the associated Thomasschule. Bachwho had himself been orphaned at the age of 10said that he took the position in Leipzig partly because of the educational opportunities it afforded his children. On graduating inFriedemann enrolled as a law student in Leipzig University, a renowned institution at the time.
He maintained a lifelong interest in mathematics, and continued to study it privately during his first job in Dresden. Friedemann was appointed in to the position of organist of the St. Sophia's Church at Dresden. The judge described Friedemann as clearly superior to the other two candidates.
He remained a renowned organist throughout his life. Among his many pupils in Dresden was Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, the keyboardist whose name is erroneously. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach enshrined in the popular nickname given to J.
The scholar Peter Williams has discredited the story linking the work to Goldberg, stating that J. Bach wrote the work for the Russian Ambassador Count Hermann Carl von Keyserlingk, who would ask his employee, Goldberg, to play variations for him to ward off insomnia.
Williams instead has argued that J. Bach wrote the variations to provide a display piece for Friedemann. InFriedemann married Dorothea Elisabeth Georgiwho was 11 years his junior and who outlived him by seven years.
Dorothea was the daughter of a tax collector. The landed estates she inherited caused the family to be placed in a high tax bracket by Halle authorities, who were raising taxes to meet the revenue demands of the Seven Years War. To raise cash for these payments, she sold part of her property in The couple produced two sons and a daughter, Friederica Sophia born inwho was the only one of their offspring to live past infancy.
The descendents of Friederica Sophia eventually migrated to Oklahoma. In he was involved in a conflict with the Cantor of the Liebfrauenkirche, Gottfried Mittag, who had misappropriated funds that were due to Friedemann. In the church authorities reprimanded Friedemann for overstaying a leave of absence he was in Leipzig settling his father's estate. In he made his first documented attempt to find another post, and thereafter made several others.
All these attempts failed. Inhe negotiated for the post of Kapellmeister to the court of Darmstadt; although he protracted the negotiations for reasons that are opaque to historians and did not actively take the post, he nevertheless was appointed "Hofkapellmeister of Hessen-Darmstadt", a title he used in the dedication of his Harpsichord Concerto in E minor. In JuneFriedemann left the job in Halle without any employment secured elsewhere.
His financial situation deteriorated so much that in he re-applied for his old job in Halle, without success. He thereafter supported himself by teaching; not surprisingly, he died in penury. After leaving Halle inhe lived for several years in Braunschweig where he applied in vain for the post of an organist at the St. Catherine's church. Then he moved to Berlin, where he initially was welcomed by the princess Anna Amalia the sister of Frederick the Greatbut later fell into disgrace under still opaque circumstances.
He died in Berlin. Earlier biographers have concluded that his wayward and difficult personality reduced his ability to gain and hold secure employment, but the scholar David Schulenberg writes in the Oxford Composer Companion: J. Bach, ed. Malcolm Boyd, that he may also have been affected by changing social conditions that made it difficult for a self-possessed virtuoso to succeed in a church- or court-related position p.
Schulenberg adds, he was evidently less willing than most younger contemporaries to compose fashionable, readily accessible music. Friedemann Bach was renowned for his improvisatory skills. It is speculated that when in Leipzig his father's accomplishments set so high a bar that he focused on improvisation rather than composition.
Evidence adduced for this speculation includes the fact that his compositional output increased in Dresden and Halle. Friedemanns compositions include many church cantatas and instrumental works, of which the most notable are the fugues, polonaises and fantasias for clavier, and the duets for two flutes.
He incorporated more elements of the contrapuntal style learned from his father than any of his three composer brothers, but his use of the style has an individualistic and improvisatory edge which endeared his work to musicians of the late 19th century, when there was something of a revival of his reputation.
Friedemann's students included Johann Nikolaus Forkel, who in published the first biography of Johann Sebastian Bach; Friedemann, as well as his younger brother Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, were major informants for Forkel. Friedemann has in earlier biographies been called a poor custodian of his father's musical manuscripts, many of which he inherited; however, more recent scholars are uncertain how many were lost.
It is known that Friedemann sold some of his father's collection to raise cash to pay debts including a large sale in to Johann Georg Nacke. Also, his daughter took some of the Sebastian Bach manuscripts with her when she moved to America, and these. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach were passed on to her descendants, who inadvertently destroyed many of them.
Others were passed on through his only known Berlin pupil, Sarah Itzig Levy, the daughter of a prominent Jewish family in Berlin and great-aunt of Felix Mendelssohn; it was she who gave Mendelssohn the manuscript of the St. Matthew Passion, which she had received from Friedemann. Some of his scores were collected by Carl Friedrich Christian Fasch and his pupil Carl Friedrich Zelter, the teacher of Felix Mendelssohn and through them these materials were placed in the library of the Berlin Singakademie, which Fasch founded in and Zelter took charge of in Friedemann is known occasionally to have claimed credit for music written by his father, but this was in keeping with common musical practices in the era.
Friedemann himself may have been one of the models for Diderot's philosophical dialogue Rameau's Nephew Le Neveu de Rameau. The preludes in K. Notes  Kahmann, Ulrich Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
References This articleincorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Chisholm, Hugh, ed Bach ed. Further reading Borysenko, Elena. The Cantatas of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. Thesis Ph. Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester, In 2 volumes. Bach, followed by translations of the texts of these movements and a critical commentary. Leipzig: C. Kahnt, Helm, Eugene. Kahmann, Ulrich. Wilhelm Friedemann Bach.
Der unterschtzte Sohn. Bielefeld: Aisthesis, Epigone oder Originalgenie, verquere Erscheinung oder groer Komponist? He said, "Heredity can tend to run out of ideas. He held a few positions, namely those of Kapellmeister of Minden inand from to as Kapellmeister in Berlin with the blessing of King Friedrich Wilhelm II. WFE married twice. He had two daughters by his first wife, who died young, and a son by his second wife.
When WFE's only son died in infancy, the event served to extinguish the long line of musical Bachs. Schumann later described WFE as "a very agile old gentleman of 84 years with snow-white hair and expressive features.
He wrote it in such a way in that it was to be performed with one large male in the middle and two petite females on either side of him. WFE indicated that the man was to stretch his arms around the ladies to play the outside parts, while the ladies performed the middle parts. There are many more chorale harmonisations to be found in Bach's cantatas, motets, passions and in his collection Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach, but the works in this list are not attached to any larger work or that larger work has been lost.
Almost all of the melodies of these chorales are not by Bach but go back to older sources. These are not four-part harmonisations like the ones in this list but chorale melodies and a basso continuo; again, almost none of those melodies are by Bach.
The composer and musicologist Johann Kirnberger compiled a list of chorale preludes: see BWV History C. Bach published with Breitkopf from to a four volume collection of J. Bach's chorales, ostensibly in number, but in fact About half of them have their origin in other works of Bach; the other half is presented in the table below, although an origin can now be attributed to six of them.
Prior to this publication, several other collections had been published, starting with chorales in by F. Birnstiel in Berlin, edited by C. A second volume of was issued by the same publisher inedited by J. Agricola, which was heavily criticised by C. In Johann Kirnberger campaigned to introduce Breitkopf to publish a complete set of chorale harmonisations.
The manuscript to be used once belonged to C. After Kirnberger died inC. Bach became Breitkopfs's editor for these chorales, which he then published in four parts: nos. This publication went through four editions and countless reprintings until Additionally, several other editions using the original C-clef or different texts were also published.
The Bach Gesellschaft published the original chorales from the C. Bach edition in volume 39 of their Complete Works in The most significant recent publication is Dr. Charles Sanford Terry's J.
Bach's Four-Part Chorales, Oxford University Presswhich contains harmonised chorales and 95 melodies with figured bass. The most widely known collection is Albert Riemenschneider's The table below provides a cross reference of those compilations with the works in this range of BWV numbers, although those compilations also contain many other chorales not in this range.
Albert Riemenschneider, G. Schirmer, NY, Prelude and Fugue in E-flat major "St. Bach H So-called 'reconstructions' have been made of harpsichord, organ and oboe concertos based on this by using cantata movements but these are almost entirely speculative. BWV Anh. Bach BWV Anh. More spurious works BWV Anh. Falsely attributed works BWV Anh. Bach except final choralepreviously ascribed to J. Reconstructed concerti Each reconstructed concerto is created after the harpsichord concerto for the presumed original instrument.
Such reconstructions are commonly referred to as, for example, BWV R where the R stands for 'reconstructed'. Notes  Williams Macy accessed 11 Decembergrovemusic.
Echo Musikproduction. Retrieved References Perreault, Jean M. Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Md. The Organ Music of J. Bach, Cambridge University Press. ISBN External links Free scores by J. Also, since Schmieder made his original listing, several of the works have been discovered to be by composers other than J. The term "cantata" was not used widely by Bach; it seems to have been chiefly applied to his secular cantatas.
Bach's manuscript scores typically have only the liturgical date as a heading; if the piece does have a designation, "concerto" seems to be the most common. The term "cantata" to refer to these pieces came into wider use after the publication of the Bach Gesellschaft edition of his works.
Alternative numbering of Bach's cantatas Philippe and Grard Zwang attempted a chronological numbering of both the church cantatas and the secular  cantatas BWV andsee: Cantates religieuses see also Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis Chronological. BWV 70a music lost, s. BWV Tnet, ihr Pauken! External links Comprehensive catalogue of all cantatas, including text with translationsscoring, commentary, recordings . List of fugal works by Johann Sebastian Bach This page lists the fugal works of Johann Sebastian Bach, defined here as the fugues, fughettas, and canons, as well as other works containing fugal expositions but not denoted as fugues, such as some choral sections of the Mass in B minor, the St Matthew Passion, the St John Passion, and the Bach cantatas.
This sub-list of the complete list of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach is intended to facilitate the study of Bach's counterpoint techniques. Each work cited in this list will be annotated with the fugal subject s and any countersubjects in musical notation. List of transcriptions of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach Johann Sebastian Bachs music has often been transcribed for other instruments.
Bach's lifetime Bach himself was an inveterate transcriber of his works for other musical forces. Classical era Working at the behest of Gottfried van Swieten, Mozart arranged some of the fugues from the Well-Tempered Clavier for string trio. Romantic era Ferruccio Busoni made a piano transcription of the chaconne from the Violin Partita in D minor, as did Brahms and others. Bach" for piano solo. Leopold Stokowski made a large number of transcriptions for full orchestra, including the Toccata and Fugue in D minor for organ, which appeared in the movie Fantasia Alexander Siloti made many piano transcriptions of Bach, most famously his Prelude in B minor based on Bach's Prelude in E minor BWV a.
Andrs Segovia was famous for his playing arrangements of Bach works transcribed for classical guitar, such as his very difficult Chaconne from the Violin Partita in D minor. Schoenberg arranged for orchestra Bach's St Anne organ prelude and fugue in Eb major Webern arranged the ricercar from The Musical Offering for orchestra. The Modern Jazz Quartet frequently performed compositions of Bach as transcribed for the instruments of their ensemble. Violinists interested in historically informed performance, notably Andrew Manze, have created "anti-transcriptions"; that is, reconstructed hypothetical original versions for violin, of the Toccata and Fugue in D minor for organ.
The prefix BWV, followed by the work's number, is the shorthand identification for Bach's compositions. The works are grouped thematically, not chronologically. History Wolfgang Schmieder assigned the BWV numbers into indicate the work's placement in the Bach works catalogue titled Thematisch-systematisches Verzeichnis der musikalischen Werke von Johann Sebastian Bach Thematic-systematic catalogue of musical works of Johann Sebastian Bach.
The BWV catalogue is occasionally updated, with newly discovered works added at its end, though spurious works do not have their numbers removed. The BWV numbers are occasionally found in older publications as, e. Reckoning Unlike chronologically arranged catalogues for other classical composers, Schmieder's Bach catalogue is arranged by genre. It is a thematical catalogue: choral works first, then organ works, then other keyboard works, and so on; hence, a low BWV number does not necessarily indicate an early work.
Schmieder chose thematical arrangement instead of chronological for several reasons, the two most important probably being: Many of Bach's works have uncertain composition dates.
Even if the score is dated, it could mean nothing more than the date it was copied, or re-arranged, et cetera. Nonetheless, since Schmieder's original publication of the BWV catalogue, music scholars have established many more probable and certain composition dates than were imaginable in the s c.
The Bach Gesellschaft had been publishing Bach's works since abbreviation: BGA ; these existing publications grouped Bach's works by genre or musical formso listing according to this established practice was less confusing.
Works found after the list's first compilation generally are added to the end of the list, so, for example, the Neumeister organ chorales have numbers around BWVrather than in the catalogue's organ section numbers, BWV Works found to be spurious or doubtful, such as the little preludes and fugues for organ, BWVhave not had their BWV numbers removed. Other cataloguing systems for Bach's compositions Opus number and publication date Ordering the complete list of Bach's compositions by opus number or by publication date were both out of the question: Bach didn't use opus numbers, and few of his works were published in his lifetime.
Chronological Philippe and Grard Zwang published an alternate system for numbering the cantatas BWV andtaking a chronology into account. Works for keyboard by J. Bach The keyboard works of the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach, originally written for organ, clavichord, and harpsichord, are among the most important and well-known of his compositions. Widely varied and ranging over the entire span of his lifetime, they are a central part of the modern repertoire for keyboard.
Bach was himself a prodigious talent at the keyboard, well-known during his lifetime both for his technical abilities and for improvisation. Many of Bach's keyboard works started out as improvisations. During the long period of neglect that Bach suffered as a composer after his death extending to his rediscovery during the nineteenth century, he was known almost exclusively through his music for the keyboard, in particular his highly influential pantonal series of Preludes and Fugues in the Well-Tempered Clavier, Album), which were regularly assigned as part of musicians' training.
Composers and performers such as Ludwig van Beethoven and Camille Saint-Sans first showed off their skills as child prodigies playing the entire cycle of Bach's 48 Preludes and Fugues. Modern composers have continued to draw inspiration from Bach's keyboard output. Dmitri Shostakovich, for example, wrote his own set of Preludes and Fugues after the Bach model. Jazz musicians and composers, in particular, have been drawn to the contrapuntal style, harmonic expansion and rhythmic expression of Bach's compositions, especially the works for keyboard.
Bach wrote widely for the harpsichord, producing numerous inventions, suites, fugues, partitas, overtures, as well as keyboard arrangements of music originally scored for other instruments. Publication history See also Bach compositions printed during the composer's lifetime Many of Bach's works for keyboard were published in Bach's own lifetime, by the composer himself, under the title Clavier-bung Keyboard Practice I-IV.
The first volume, Bach's Opus 1, was published inwhile the Variation 24: Canone AllOttava - Johann Sebastian Bach / Sergey Schepkin - The Goldberg Variations (CD was published a decade later. The volumes are an open imitation of two volumes published by Bach's Leipzig predecessor Johann Kuhnau under the same title. Kuhnau used arrayed keys to structure his exercises, a model which Bach emulated through the Clavier-bung volumes.
The Well-Tempered Clavier, however, was not published until half a century after Bach's death, although they were in circulation before that in manuscript form. Of the four Clavier-bung works, the first, second and last contain music written for harpsichord, while the third is devoted to. Media See list of compositions by Johann Sebastian Bach for recordings of some of his keyboard works. List of compositions by J. Bach printed during his lifetime See List of compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach for the complete list of Bach compositionsthe present list only lists those compositions by Bach which were printed during his lifetime.
Since some of these editions have been scattered over the BWV catalogue, this list is only intended to provide information regarding how Bach went about the publication of his own works. Note that in Bach's time, compositions could circulate in manuscript and be copied by hand, which sometimes amounted to publication, for example the Well-Tempered Clavier was considered "published" in this fashion years before it was printed the first time all long before copyright even existed.
The scores of more extended vocal and orchestral works were less often published in print in Bach's time, at least as far as Bach's music is concerned. Such scores were generally intended for local use, and the expenses for printing all the parts were high. However, text-books of the special Easter and Christmas services, celebrated in the churches for which Bach composed music in Leipzig, were regularly printed e. As these publications only contain texts without music notation, they are not further considered in this article.
Autumn Partita No. In these partitas were collectively published as Clavier-bung "Keyboard Exercise". Clavier-bung II Published in Both works specified for performance on a two-manual harpsichord.
Bach contrasted a work in Italian style - a Concerto nach Italienischem Gusto Concerto after the Italian taste, now known as the Italian Concerto with a work in French style, a suite which he called Overture nach Franzsischer Art Overture in the French style, now commonly referred to as the French Overture. The French Overture had previously been written down in C minor; for the publication of Bach transposed it to B minor and made slight changes to the musical text, for example in the rhythms of the first movement.
The reason for the transposition is not known: one speculation is that the aim was to increase the contrast between the two works. F major is a "flat" key and B minor is a "sharp" key, and the keynotes are related by a tritone, which is the most distant modulation. Schemelli 69 Sacred Songs and Arias for Georg Christian Schemelli's Musical Song Book, which contained in total song-texts, for voice and an accompaniment written down as a figured bass.
Not all 69 melodies were composed by Bach, but he provided or "improved" a thorough bass accompaniment for all of them, BWV Schemellis Gesangbuch was published inand contains some of Bach's probably least known compositions. Fourth Clavier-bung For double manual harpsichord - published Not numbered as IV in the original print! Kunst der Fuge In preparation for print when the composer died : The Art of Fugue, BWV Both instrumentation and performance order of the fugues and canons contained in this work remain subject to debate amongst scholars.
Amore traditore It is uncertain whether Bach supervised the publication of his secular cantata Amore traditore, BWVin a now lost volume containing Italian cantates by various composers. The publication date of that omnibus volume is equally unknown. Apart from Bach's cantatas for voice and harpsichord accompaniment, the volume is supposed to have contained works by Telemann, Heinichen, Conti, and others.
History The original orchestral suite was written by Bach for his patron Prince Leopold of Anhalt sometime between the years and The title comes from violinist August Wilhelmj's late 19th century arrangement of the piece for violin and piano. By transposing the key of the piece from its original D major to C major and Album) the melody down an octave, Wilhelmj was able to play the piece on only one string of his violin, the G string. This was by the Russian cellist Aleksandr Verzhbilovich and an unnamed pianist, in as the Air from the Ouverture No.
The work was written in honor of the 52nd birthday of Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Saxe-Weimar, whom Bach served as court organist. The last time a previously unknown vocal work by Bach was discovered was in Recordings J. Bach: Complete Cantatas Vol. Bach: J. Bach: Cantatas Vol. External links NPR article reporting on the discovery  full text and translation of the aria .
It was most likely started at the beginning of the s, if not earlier. The first known surviving version, which contained 12 fugues and 2 canons, was copied by the composer in From this devout beginning they proceeded to jokes which were frequently in strong contrast. That is, they then sang popular songs partly of comic and also partly of indecent content, all mixed together on the spur of the moment. This kind of improvised harmonizing they called a Quodlibet, and not only could laugh over it quite whole-heartedly themselves, but also aroused just as hearty and irresistible laughter in all who heard them.
Forkel's anecdote which is likely to be true, given that he was able to interview Bach's sonssuggests fairly clearly that Bach meant the Quodlibet to be a joke. A note-for-note repeat of the aria at the beginning. Williams writes that the work's "elusive beauty Its melody Album) made to stand out by what has gone on in the last five variations, and it is likely to appear wistful or nostalgic or subdued or resigned or sad, heard on its repeat as something coming to an end, the same notes but now final.
When Bach's personal copy of the printed edition of the "Goldberg Variations" see above was discovered init was found to include an appendix in the form of fourteen canons built on the first eight bass notes from the aria. The Goldberg Variations have been reworked freely by many performers, changing either the instrumentation, the notes, or both. The Italian composer Busoni prepared a greatly altered transcription for piano. According to the art critic Michael Kimmelman"Busoni shuffled the variations, skipping some, then added his own rather voluptuous coda to create a three-movement structure; each movement has a distinct, arcing shape, and the whole becomes a more tightly organized drama than the original.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Goldberg variations. Keyboard work by Johann Sebastian Bach. For other uses, see Goldberg Variations disambiguation. Aria to Variation 9. Variations 10 to Variations 23 to Aria Da Capo. Bass Line. Performed by Kimiko Douglass-Ishizaka on piano. This file is available in "flac" format here. Variatio 1. Variatio 2. Variatio 3. Canone all'Unisuono. Variatio 4. Variatio 5. Variatio 6. Canone alla Seconda.
Variatio 7. Variatio 8. Variatio 9. Canone alla Terza. Variatio 10 a 1 Clav. Variatio 11 a 2 Clava. Variatio Canone alla Quarta. Variatio 13 a 2 Clav. Variatio 15 a 1 Clav. Canone alla Quinta. Variatio 16 a 1 Clav. Variatio 17 a 2 Clav.
Variatio 18 a 1 Clav. Canone alla Sexta. Variatio 20 a 2 Clav. Variatio 21 Canone alla Settima. Variatio 22 a 1 Clav. Variatio 23 a 2 Clav. Variatio 24 a 1 Clav. Canone all Ottava. Variatio 26 a 2 Clav. Variatio 27 a 2 Clav. Variatio 28 a 2 Clav. Variatio 29 a 1 ovvero 2 Clav. Aria da Capo. The Keyboard Music of J. The Faber Pocket Guide to Bachp. Bach Studies 2p. Bach's Keyboard Musicp. Retrieved By Thomas Braatz January ".
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Extract viewable on line at Google Books: . The New York Times. Chicago Reader. Retrieved 24 June Bach publications. I: ; Vol. II: Bach-Jahrbuch — Compositions for organkeyboard and lute by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach Notebook A. Bach Twelve Little Preludes. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.
Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Problems playing these files? See media help. Bass Line Goldberg Variations bass line. Problems playing this file? Aria Performed by Kimiko Douglass-Ishizaka on piano. Fughetta Performed by Kimiko Douglass-Ishizaka on piano. Ouverture Performed by Kimiko Douglass-Ishizaka on piano.
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