In societies that fear dead bodies, the deceased may be abandoned, but they are nevertheless the focus of ritual attention. Most commonly, rites at death are elaborate, and they include clearly all of the stages of separation, transition, and reincorporation first noted by van Gennep.
Ceremonies of social transformation include all the life-cycle ceremonies, since these involve social transitions for the subjects of the ritual and also for other persons. A man or woman who dies, for example, assumes a new social role as a spirit that may be socially important to the living, the bereaved spouse becomes a widow or widower, and the children have an unnamed but changed status as lacking one parent.
A vast number of rites of social transformation, such as rites of initiation into common-interest societies, have no direct or primary connection with biological changes, however. These are abundant in the United States and in Europe, usually as secular ceremonies. Whether hereditary or achieved by appointment or election, assumption of important office in various kinds of societies is often observed by elaborate ritual.
Any other events involving changes in social status tend to become the subjects of institutionalized ritual, which is then a prerequisite for the new status. Common examples are initiation ceremonies of college fraternities, sororities, and honorary societies; adult fraternal societies; and social groups of other kinds centred on common interests. Other social changes of importance that apply to a substantial number of people but do not involve initiation into organized social groups are also given ritual attention.
Common among these are graduation exercises, festivities marking retirement from work, and various kinds of award ceremonies. Religious transformation ceremonies signal changes in religious status, which may be matters of the greatest importance to the people. Making sacrifices Rites Of Passage offerings are rituals that may be required in the normal course of life; further, these acts may be regarded as conferring a new religious status or state of grace.
Sacrifices are a frequent feature of rites of passage, and important ceremonies like the coronations and funerals of rulers have sometimes required the sacrifice of many human beings.
Among the laity, entry into a religious society or the assumption of any other new religious role is customarily an event celebrated by such rites as those of baptism and confirmation. Among professional religious personnel, the achievement of any distinct status of specialization is ordinarily observed by rites corresponding to the Christian rites of ordination —the rites through which religious functionaries become entitled to exercise their respective functions.
As with other rites of passage, these rites may be simple or complex, and their degree of complexity may generally be easily seen as reflecting the religious and social importance of the newly acquired status. A single element of an elaborate rite in one society, such as circumcision or the dressing of the hair in a distinctive way, may in another society be the central or sole event of rites of either social or religious transformation.
These ceremonies may, accordingly, be called rites of circumcision or be identified by the name of the style of hairdress. The term rites Rites Of Passage passage is applied occasionally to institutionalized rites for curing serious illness and rarely to cyclic ceremonies like harvest festivals.
No new social or religious status is ordinarily gained by recovery from illness or participation in harvest rites, however, and these ceremonies have probably been included among the rites of passage because of similarities in their ritual procedures. In some societies recovery from a very critical illness is regarded as a divine sign that the erstwhile invalid should assume the role of a religious specialist, but rites of ordination are quite separate.
Some elements of ceremonies pertaining to changes in the seasons may be seen as incorporating acts of separation and incorporation, symbolically saying goodbye to the old season and welcoming the new, but these are not customarily called rites of passage. Divorcealthough clearly denoting a change in social status, has rarely been regarded as a rite of passage.
Festive observances at this time are perhaps common in some societies, but Rites Of Passage are often informal practices of the individual or simple acts of local custom, such as discarding wedding rings, that are not institutionalized in the entire society. The absence of divorce from the conventional roster of rites of passage illustrates an outstanding characteristic of this class of rites: all celebrate events that are either socially approved or, like death and illness, unavoidable.
Rites of passage that signal the assumption of social statuses disapproved by society are both out of keeping with the prevailing interpretation of the rites as being socially supportive and would broaden them to cover such events as trials by jury and commitment to prison for serious crimes.
Whatever their subclassification, Rites Of Passage, elaborate rites of passage are commonly rich in symbolism that prominently includes representations of the states of separation and transition and, especially, insignia of the new status. Most common among these markers of new status are alterations and embellishments of visible or invisible parts of the body, distinctive garments and bodily decorations, and insignias corresponding to symbols of office.
All parts of the body that may be altered or embellished without ordinarily causing serious disability have served as the symbols of social statuses and have been elements of rites of passage. The main aim of the sings is to focus on courtship amongst themselves. Those who attend these sings may take part into wearing non-traditional clothes or hairstyle, drinking, not attending prayers at home, driving a motor vehicle, etc.
Not many Amish youth diverge from the community during this period. Buddhists do not require to observe a strict custom. This is because they mainly focus on the internal life. Some choose to take part in the passage ceremonies, while the rest do not. Either way, they are accepted into the community. Newborn infants are blessed near a temple, and a candle is lit and allowed to melt into a bowl.
This symbolizes the union of the basic elements of earth, fire, air, and water. At the temple, the bride and groom arrive along with their family and friends. This thread encircles those who have come for the wedding. This symbolizes the union of all. During this ceremony, the monks chant their holy prayers, and the principle monk blesses the couple. Some sections of Buddhists do not believe in reincarnation of the soul. As per the belief, no one is born a Christian; they become one after being christened as they go through the rites of entering the church.
The Church of England practices baptizing infants, while introducing confirmation and holy communion for adults.
This is a practice followed by the Anglican church and is carried out by a Bishop. The candidate renews his baptismal vow and is anointed in oil. This process is still followed if the candidate has not been baptized as an infant.
Marriage is seen as a commitment between the husband and wife in the presence of the Christ, and family and friends who bare witness to their union. The main service is a reminder of the provision made in the Bible, and thus, it begins with the reading of the sermon. The priest leads the vows that are taken of companionship, respect, and love, through thick and thin situations. The priest then declares the two to be legally wed. Initially, burials took place at Rites Of Passage, and thus, everyone in the funeral procession wore black.
However, the practice of wearing black carried on. Funeral procession is followed by burial and then the funeral feast. Christianity believes that death is not the end, but Jesus is victorious over death.
Rites of passage are not mere formalities for the Hindus, but they are part of soul purification during different aspects of life. They are initially introduced to the young to teach them what their duties are after the ceremony is complete.
As per the holy scriptures, there are 16 samskaras. It is conducted to secure the health of both the mother and child. People and a priest are invited, and a small holy ceremony is conducted.
The expecting mother is gifted with things she would need for her child. After consulting a priest or an astrologer, a suitable letter is chosen for the child to be named with. This is followed only by the male child in many Hindu subsects. The child is taught the Gayatri mantra along with a few other mantras, and he steps into adulthood. Most rites of passage are religious ceremonies. They not only mark the transition between an individual's life stages but they reinforce the dominant religious views and values of a culture.
In other words, they reinforce the world-view. Marriage is an important rite of passage in all cultures. Note the military symbolism and ritual acts of this formal religious wedding in Canada. Rites of passage in many cultures are used to mark the socially recognized transition to sexual maturity.
Among some of the indigenous societies of Africa and Australia, intentionally painful genital surgery has been an integral part of such rites of passage. Circumcision is removing all or part of the foreskin of the penis, usually with a knife.
Subincision is cutting into the side of the penis or making a hole entirely through it. Clitoridectomy is cutting off all or part of the clitoris and sometimes all or part of the labia. Infibulation is partially closing off the opening to the vagina by sewing, pinning, or clamping part of the vulva.
Many Native American societies publicly celebrated a girl's first menses. The girls were partly buried in heated sand at this time. They were not permitted to scratch themselves or eat salt, and they were given instructions by older women about the physiological changes that were occurring and how to behave as a woman and wife.
For most North American girls today, public announcements that they had begun menstruating would be considered humiliating. However, it was a matter of personal and family pride in many Native American cultures. While boys do not experience such clear physiological markers of transition to adulthood as menstruation, their rites of passage to this new status in some cultures are more severe than for girls.
Gypsy Polka, Maynard Ferguson - M.F. Horn Two (Vinyl, LP, Album), Βραδινός Αγγελιοφόρος - Γιώργος Βαρσαμάκης - Μυστικά Παραμύθια (CDr, Album), La Chanson Du Scaphandrier - Léo Ferré - Intégrale Léo Ferré Et Ses Interprètes 1947-1956 (CD), A Quelle Heure Est-Il ?, Não Fui Eu - Ana Moura - Para Além Da Saudade (CD, Album), (Thats Just My Way Of) Forgetting You, Out There - Benjamin Britten - Vishnevskaya* - Pears* - Fischer-Dieskau* - War Requiem (CD, Album), The Winner Takes It All - ABBA - Super Trouper (Vinyl, LP, Album)